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Varuna 'the one who econompasses the whole world,' is one of the oldest Vedic deities. May be he is the personification of the sky; but he is also associated with clouds and water, rivers and ocean. He is sometimes clubbed with Mitra and praised (Mitravaruna).
Varuna is the king of the universe and lives in the highest world. His knowledge and power are unlimited. He has thousand eyes and oversees the whole world. Hence he is the lord of the moral law. He punishes those who transgress this law but forgives them out of compassion if they repent and pray. By activating Vayu, the lord of the wind, he sustains life by giving rain and crops.
Though Varuna was the chief deity in the beginning, he seems to have yielded his place later on to Indra and Prajapati.
In the subsequent mythological literature Varuna is described as the presiding deity of the western quarter and as the lord of oceans, water and aquatic animals. In some of the temples he is depicted as riding on a crocodile. In two of his four arms he holds the serpent and the noose (pasa). Sometimes he is pictured as riding in a chariot drawn by seven swans and holding the lotus, the noose, the conch and a vessel of gems in the four hands. There is an umbrella over his head.
Vasus: Vasus are a class of deities, eight in number, chiefly known as attendants of Indra. The word Vasu is derived from 'vas' ('to dwell,' 'to cause to dwell,' 'to shine') and hence Vasus are deities representing all spheres of extension or space, and height. They were perhaps personifications of nature and natural phenomena.
The eight Vasus are: Dhara (the earth), Anala (the fire), Ap (the waters), Anila, (the wind),. Dhruva (the polestar), Soma (the moon), Prabhasa (the dawn) and Pratyusa, (the light).











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