contains 12 Chapters – each with many sub-sections.
Shrimad Bhagwad is regarded as a delicious fruit of Veda-Kalpa the
period of four Yugas during which Vedas are supposed to be written.
There is nothing abdicable in Shrimad Bhagwad. The Bhagwadkar (the
orator of Shrimad Bhagwad) invites all the devotees in the world to
relish this great scripture. Shrimad Bhagwad is a contemporary of Vedas;
there is a profuse mention of Karm (action), Upasana (worship) and Gyan
(knowledge) in Vedas, but Bhakti (devotion) could not find a place in
Shrimad Bhagwad compensates for this drawback, for it has vivid and
comprehensive description of Bhakti (devotion). No action, worship and
knowledge can exist without devotion. Presentation style of Shrimad
Bhagwad is also remarkable; it's every page is flowing in the stream of
devotion. All the forms and appearances of God have been described
exhaustively. It is such a benevolent scripture that mere hearing of it
even without getting it's meaning, is beneficial for the listener. If
however one reflects on the meaning of the content, it would be a bonus.
There are many examples in the past (when even the most dreaded sinister
received salvation by mere hearing of Shrimad Bhagwad. Sinister
Dhundhukari, who was in ghost form, is one such example. King Parikshit
too, had a sight of his own soul by listening to Shrimad Bhagwad. Such
examples are getting scarcer now days. Even then the devotees who really
relish Bhagwad get free from the fears of death.
Shrimad Bhagwad makes a man fearless. Dhruv rode the death itself for
his heavenly departure. Pitamah Bheeshma turned away the inevitable
death many times. Hence, those devotees who have taken a shelter at
Shrimad Bhagwad develop faith in themselves. Then they have no fear of
death. Shrimad Bhagwad is an immortal scripture that generates devotion.
It is a means to find God without Yoga and Tapa.
Virtues like unconditional love, generosity, grace, kindness and
protection of the refugee, that are the adornments of God, have been
described in simple, easy to grasp way in Shrimad Bhagwad. Virtues of
God like His playing and chatting with ordinary people and helping them
in every circumstance sympathetically, naturally attract the people
towards him. Bhagwad makes a man free from doubts. It is a supreme
creation by Vyasaji. Bhagwad is in fact an appearance of Narayana. It is
a complete scripture. Fiddles get guidance by listening to it, while the
infidels become fiddle. Even the sage like Shukdevji, who deserted
everything, couldn't give up the temptation to hear Shrimad Bhagwad. It
is a life giver to all kind of people. It has a beautiful balance
between the practice and altruism. It has a comprehensive content
regarding the knowledge, action, social duties, women's duties, religion
and politics etc. Having heard and reflected over Shrimad Bhagwad, there
remains nothing to know then. In the present era the society has
neglected the knowledge, devotion and spirituality. It regards physical
achievements as everything. Bhagwad does not forbid or deny the physical
achievements, but it gives a message to acquire a balanced view for
them-neither too much indifference nor too much indulgence.
TATHANATE MADHAV TAVAKAH KVACHIT BHRASHYANTI MARGAT VADI BADDH
TVAYA BHIGUPTA VICHARANTI NIRBHAYA VINAYAKANIKAPAMURDHA SUPRABHO.
TAVAD RAGA DAYAN STEMASTAVAD KARAGRIHAM GRIHAM
TAVANMOHONDHRI NIGADO YAVAT KRISHNA NA TE JANAM.
Created by Maharshi Badrayan an epithet of Ved Vyas Shrimad Bhagwad
Mahapuran is an immortal heritage of the world's ancient literature. It
is no less than ambrosia. Shrimad Bhagwad is equally honored by the
learned ones, devotees, sages and the metaphysical researchers.
Tales from the time of the beginning of creation to the Pralaya Kaal
(The great deluge) have been skillfully interwoven in Shrimad Bhagwad.
Because of it's unique, dialogue like presentation style, Shrimad
Bhagwad is an encyclopaedia in itself.
TATTATTVAVIDAH TATTVAM YAOGYANAM DVAYAM |
BRAHNETI PARA MATMETI BHAGAVA NITI SHABDYATE |
Word Bhagwad literally means God or akin to God. All the virtues of God,
therefore and even those of His devotees are expressed by this seemingly
simple word, Bhagwad which has been transformed into an immortal
scripture by Krishna.
NAM PURANAM BRAHMA SAMBHITAM |
UTTAM SHLOR CHARITAM CHAKAR BHAGWANARASHIH ||
During the twilight of Dwapar Yuga, Maharashi Veda-Vyas taught this
scripture to his son Shukdev. Origin of Shrimad Bhagwad is even older.
In the tradition of Shrimad Bhagwad, God Narayan himself narrated its
content to Brahma. Brahma narrated it to Devarshi Narad who preached it
to Badrayan Vyas. Vyas brought it into scriptural form and handed it to
his son Shuk Dev. Shukdev, in his turn, preached Shrimad Bhagwad to the
king Parikshit and SUTJI. King Parikshit died soon after hearing it,
while SUTJI narrated this scripture to the sages like Shaunak et al. in
Nemisharanya during his thousand years stay there.
PURAN SANHITAMETAMRISHIRNARAYANO AVYAYAM |
NARADAY PURA PRAH KRISHNDVAI PAYNAY SAH ||
SAVAI MAHYM MAHARAJ BHAGVAN BADRAYANAH|
IMAM BhagwadI PRITAH SANHITAM VED SAMMITM ||
ETAM VAKSHVYASAV SUT RISHTIBMYO NAIMISHALAYE|
DIRGHSATARE KURUSHRESHTH SAMPUSHRAH SHUANAKADIBHIM||
The greatest feature of Bhagwad is that it illustrates the mutual but
eternal relationship of the Jivatma (microcosm) and Pramatma (the
supreme sprit.) It also illustrates the selfless dedication of the
devotees and unconditional love of God for His devotees. Thus it
introduces one with oneself and hence leads him to salvation. The author
has beautifully woven the plays of God into enticing tales with the help
of the yarns of knowledge, devotion and action:
BHAGVATI BHAKTI YOGA PRAYOJITAH |
JANYATYA SHUVAIRAGYAM GYANAM CHA YADHETUKAM ||
EVAM PRASANN MANASO BHAGWAD BHAKTIYOGATAM |
BHAGVATTA TTVA VIGYANAM MUKT SANGASY JAYATE ||
This story of God attracts the learned ones like Shiv, Sanak, Shuk etc.
as much as it pleases the common people who are stricken with many kinds
of evils. It is indeed a wealth for the lovers of Bhagwad, devotees and
other religious people.
TAV KATHAMRITAM TAPT JIVANAM KAVIBHIRIDITAM KALM SHAPAHAM |
SHRAVAN MANGALAM SHRIMADATATAM, BHUVIGANATITE BHURIDA JANAM ||
Hence, the excellent, easily available and simple means to know the self
are reciting, remembering and singing in praise of Lord Krishna.
Paramatma (Lord) enters the heart of the devoted listener of Hari
Charitra (virtues of God) in verbal form and destroys the blemishes
BHAGWANANTO SHRI TANUBHAVO VYASANAM HI PUNSHAM PRAVISHTH CHINTAM VIDHU
NOTYSHESHAM YATHA TAMORKOABHRA MIVATIVATAH.
It is clear, therefore, that without resorting to any other difficult
and mysterious means, one can afford his well being simply by taking
refuge at Bhagwad. Instead, dedicating himself to God and remembering
Him, one gets the love of God in his mundane life. Such an achievement
is rare even for great ascetics.
AHOATIDHANYA VRAJ GORAMANYAM STANYAMRITAM PITMTN TEE MUDA |
AHOBHAGYAMAHOBHAGY NAND GOR VRAJAIKSAM |
YANMICHAM PARMANANDAM PURNAM BRAMHA SANATANAM ||
contains 12 sub-sections.
DEVAM KANS CHANUR MARDANAM |
DEVAKI PARMANANDAM KRISHAM VANDE JAGAD GURUM ||
NARAYANAM NAMASKRITY NARAM CHAIV NAROTTAMAM |
DEVI SARASWATIM CHAIV TATO JAY MUNDIRAYET ||
YAH SWANU BHAVAM-KHILK SHRUTI SARMEKAM DHYATM DIPMATI
SANSARINAM KARUNAAAH PURAN GUHYAM TAM VYAS SUNUMUPAYAMI GURUM MUNINAM ||
We meditate to that Paramatma (Supreme Being) who is the eternal truth;
and who creates the universe, holds it and causes Pralaya. He is the
light independence and from of knowledge in himself. He causes illusions
even for the most knowledgeous ones. Yet, He is far beyond all the
In Shrimad Bhagwad, created by the great sage Vyasaji, There is a
description of the supreme religion, which is free from desire. There is
also a description of Paramatmatatva ( the metaphysical entity) that
every pious people with holy spirit must know about.
Shrimad Bhagwad is a delicious and relishing fruit of Vedas. Because of
a touch of Shri Shukacharya's lips, it is impregnated with blissful
nectar. So, as long as there is life in his body, a devotee keeps on
relishing this nectar of divine scripture. It is easily available right
here on the earth itself.
In the beginning of the Kalyug, sages like Shaunak et al organized a
vast Gyan Yagga in the holy region of the Naimisharanya. The purpose of
the yagya was the benefit of the common people and it was to last for a
millennium. To quench the spiritual curiosity of the sages, SUTJI, the
orator of Puranas, also arrived there. Felicitating him, the sages asked
SUTJI, " O great sage, by the grace of Vyasji, you have learned all the
Purans, history, religion etc. You also know about all the other
subjects as well. So kindly narrate the tale which could surely benefit
the common people so that they too can experience the real spiritual
Pleased by the curiosity of the sages, SUTJI said, " O great sages, it
is extremely auspicious to talk about Lord Krishna. Only by discussing
about the God, can the mind of the people be freed from illusions. Love
then begins to emerge in it for God and it begins to detach itself from
physical comfort and experience the blissful joy.
Driven by the desire, the Adipurush (primitive being) Narayan took the
help of his Prakriti (nature's female creational force) and generated
himself in Chaturbhuj (four-armed) from. And from His navel appeared
Lord Brahma, the creator. That form of God was full of pure truth and
from the parts of His body, all the Lokas (worlds) got extension.
Metaphysicists saw the God with innumerable heads, eyes, arms and legs.
That endless, eternal Supreme Being was the source of all the Avatars
(incarnations) and from the parts of His body were created Gods, human
beings, birds animals and all other creatures.
From the ages, twenty-four incarnations of that Supreme being, like
Sanakadi Kumar, Varah, Narad, Nar-Narayana, Kapil, Dattatreya,
Rishabhdev, Prithu, Matsya, Kachchhap, Dhanvantari, Mohini, Narsinh,
Vaman, Parshu Ram, Vyas Shri Rama, Balarama, Krishna and Buddha have
appeared to guard the people and to remove the burden from the earth,
and to salve their devotees and gentlemen. SUTJI says, " blessed are
those who have unconditional love for Lord Vasudev, the lord of the
universe. Such people don't fall again and again, in the cycles of life
and death. Bhagwad Mahapuran is such a scripture in which the great sage
VedVyas describes the holy and pious tales of the God. For the benefit
of the people, VedVyas compiled this great scripture taking extracts of
all the Vedas, and other ancient treatises. Reading, hearing or
reflecting on which, the human being inclines to devotion and finds
SHRIMADBhagwadAM PURANAMA MALAMYA DVATSHNAVANAM PRIYAM |
YASMIN PARAM HANSYA MEKAMAMALAL GYANAM PARAM GIYATE ||
YATRA GYAN VIRAG BHAKTI SAHITAM NASH KAMRYAMA VISHHRITAM |
TACHCHHRIVAN VIPATMAN VICHARAN PARO BHAKTYA VIMUCHYE NNARAH ||
Shaunkji asked, " When that tale was compiled in scriptural form, that
was later on related by Shukdevji. Where was it created? For what
purpose and by whose inspiration, that scripture was compiled and how
did Shukdevji, who was congenital wandered, came to study this
scripture, and how he came to see the king Parikshit? What discussion
took place between them?"
What SUTJI narrated to the sages, forms the main body of the great
scripture Shrimad Bhagwad.-
Vedvyasji had appeared in Dwapar Yuga. He was the son of Maharshi
Parashar and Satyawati then known as Matsyagandha. Vyasji was a partial
incarnation of the God. Vedvyasji effected a division of Vedas, created
Puranas conceptualized history (Mahabharata-which was actually jotted
down by none other than Lord Ganesha.) He also established different
faculties for teaching his disciples. Yet staying in his hermitage at
the banks of the river Saraswati, he was not satisfied with his
performance. Something was still writhing within his heart to come out.
So he was feelling upset and was unable to find a reason for his
dejection. Just then, Devarshi Narad arrived there, and saw that Mahatma
Vyas was upset. As nothing was concealed from Naradji, he told him the
reasons for his moroseness.
Naradji told him that though he had created great epics, yet all of them
lack a devotional description of God. That was why his soul was still
writhing. Naradji also suggested him to describe the glory of Hari, or
neither his voice, nor his creation would ever get pure. Devarshi Narad
then narrated the tale of God and the glory of His devotees to Vyasji
and said, "O great soul, look at the effect of devotion and company of
the pious people that I have become Devarshi from an ordinary son of a
After the departure of Naradji, Vyasji sat in meditation and experienced
the illusion that caught the life. He also experienced devotion. Thus,
his fresh experience led Vedvyasaji to create this great scripture. The
virtues of God had such a strong attraction that,lured by them, even
self-indulgent Shukdevi ran back from the jungles to his father and
prayed to let him read that scripture.
KSHIPTMATI BHAGWAN VAD RAYANIH |
ADHYAGAN MHRIDAKHYANAM TITYAM VISHNU JAN PRIYAH ||
PARINISHTHITOAPI NAIRGUNY UTTAM SHLOK LEELAYA |
GRIHEET YETA RAJARSHE AKHYANAM YAD DHITVAN ||
Because of their link with Lord Shri Krishna, SUTJI narrates the stories
of Pamdavas, their heavenly departure, coronation of Parikshit, his all
round victories etc. as per their sequences in Mahabharat. He also
narrates the episodes of Ashwatthama the son of Guru Drona, worship of
God by Kunti etc. and migration of Lord Krishna to Dwaraka.
During his regime, the king Parikshit got untoward reports that Kaliyug
had entered within the limits of his otherwise peaceful kingdom. With a
huge army, Parikshit at once setout to the spot where Kaliyug had
arrived. On the way he saw the religion and the earth in the guises of a
bull and a cow respectively. The cow was in death-like condition, while
the bull was somehow dragging himself on one leg only as its three legs
were broken. He also saw that a king-like, but impolite man was beating
them ruthlessly with a stick. From a distance, the king Parikshit
shouted at the man, "You scoundrel, why are you beating such helpless
creatures in my kingdom?" Saying this, the king Parikshit drew his sword
to kill the evil Kali. But the clever Kali fell at the feet of the king.
For Kali was now in the king's refuge, he did not kill him, but ordered
that being an assistant of irreligious, he should at once leave the
kingdom. Kali then asked, " O king wherever I go, I find you ready to
kill me with you bow and arrow. You tell me where should I go and where
should I live?" The king allowed Kali to live in five things-- gambling,
drinking of wine, company of women, violence and the Gold. Since then,
Kali i.e. the dispute has had a continuos association with these five
things. Hence, anybody disirous of self-improvement must avoid these
five things which are governed by Kali.
One day, king Parikshit went on a hunting excursion. Till noon, he could
not find a game. He was feeling restless because of hunger, thirst and
fatigue. Searching water and shelter the king reached the hermitage of
the sage Shamik. Shamik was in deep meditation so he did not welcome the
king. For the first time the king Parikshit grew angry with a Brahmin.
As a revenge and to show his anger he hanged a dead snake around the
Maharshi Shamik's son Shringi was also an effluent person. When he came
to know about his father's insult by the king Parikshit, he cursed him
that on the seventh day from that moment, Takshak, the Naga would bite
the king for his violation of kingly glory. There in the capital, king
Parikshit realized his mistake and felt sorry for his deed. But he
welcomed the curse. Transferring the kingdom to his son Janamejay, king
Parikshit reached the banks of the river Ganges and sat there on a fast
unto death. Very soon all the great sages and kings began to throng
there. King Parikshit welcomed them and begged them to recite the plays
of God for him. He also asked what a creature ought to do always, and
what were the duties of those who face an imminent death.
At that moment the ever-wandering, indifferent-natured sage Shukdevji
also arrived there. He was self indulgent and free from the bondages of
ashrams (phases of life). He was then only sixteen years old but
appeared quite radiant and graceful.
BHAGVAN VIAS PUTRO, YADRICHCHHAYA GAMARMANO ANOYESHAH |
ALASKHYLINGO NIJLABHTUSHTO VRITASHCH BALAIRAVADHOOT VESHAH ||
SHYAMAM SADAYICHY VAYOANG LAKSHMYA, STRINAM MANO GYAM RUCHIR SMITEN |
PRATYATTHITASTE MANUYAH SWASNEMTAH, TATLAKSHANAGYA API GURH VARCH SAM ||
Shukdevji was an honorable figure even for the sages who had gathered
there as gust themselves. King Parikshit formally welcomed and worshiped
Shukdevji and offered him a comfortable seat. King Parikshit then prayed
to him, " O sage, Lord Krishna is definitely pleased with me. That's why
He has sent a great sage like you to salve a wretched person like me.
So, O Mahatma (the great soul), kindly remove my doubts and guide me
regarding the duties of a human-being? What should one acquire and what
should one drop?"
This chapter is
very short – containing only 2 sub-sections.
Shri Shukdevji says 'O King, ordinary people literally waste their lives
in petty matters like useless discussions, worry, sleep and feeding
themselves. Those who wish to conquer their fears, O Parikshit, must
listen to, recite and remember the tales that depict the plays of Lord
Shri Krishna. The human birth can be successful only if by any means one
has a remembrance of God in his last moments. All the scriptures also
dictate the same doctrine:
SARVATMA BHAGWANISHVASE HARIH ||
SHROTAVYAH KIRTI TAVYASHCH SMARTAV YASHCHE CHCHHA TAMAYAM |
ETAVAN SHANKHY YOGABHYAM SWADHRM PARINISHTHAYA |
JANM LABHAH PARAH PUNSAMANTE NARAYAN SMRITIH ||
ETANNNIRVI DYAMANA NAMICHCHH TAMKUTOBHAYAM |
YOGINAM NRIPANIRNITAM HARER NA MANUKIRTANAM ||
One should remember the huge, macro as well as micro form of the
omnipresent God, and must not long for the physical objects. Shukdevji
then revealed the kinds of Mukti (salvation) as told in Vedas and said:
'O King, there is no other way as beneficial as the means to achieve the
affectionate devotion of Lord Vasudev. Hence, every human being must in
all circumstances, use his might in listening to, reciting and
remembering the name of Lord Shrihari.
SARVATMANA RAJAN HARIH SARVATR SARVADA |
SHROTAVYAH KIRTITAVYASHCH SMARTANYO BHAGWANNRINAM||
Though as per the interest, nature, and the desires of different people,
and pleased by their worship, many gods oblige their devotees within
their powers. But materialization of mundane desires of the innocent
people has disastrous consequences. Learned people, therefore, whether
they have or haven't any desire, worship Purushottam God with fervent
AKAMAH SARUKAMO VA MOKSHKAM UDARDHIH |
TIUREN BHAKTI YOGEN YAJET PURUSHAM PARAM ||
The king Parikshit felt extreme pleasure when Shukdevji satisfied his
queries. He then began to feel submerged in the stream of Bhagwad Katha
(tale of the God). His selfish worries regarding his own benefits
existed no more. He insisted again: O Brahmin, now kindly explain how
does the God create the universe out of illusions. How does He preserve
the universe? How does He destroy it? At the instance of the king,
Shukdevji contemplated on the God and presented the dialogue of Brahma
and Narad that illustrates the Maitreya nature of the creation.
Brahamaji had preached Narad that because of Paramatma's (Supreme Being)
desire of creation, this universe into existence from the primitive
elements. Lord Brahma also told that after creating the universe God
himself entered it. Hence, the whole universe is a manifestation of
God's infinite appearance. His virtues can not be counted. But, to show
his presence, Narayan takes various incarnations and appears on earth
time and again. Merely, by listening to various beautiful and enticing
plays of God, the mind, voice, thoughts and the soul of a human being
RAN DHREN SWANAM BHAV SARORUHAM |
DHUNOTI SHAMALAM KRISHN SALILASY YATHA SHARAT ||
Parikshit again put forth many new queries regarding creation. Shukdevji
related the events like emergence of Brahamji on a lotus that cropped up
from the navel of Lord Vishnu, sighting of Lord Vishnu's abode by Lord
Brahma, preaching of Bhagwad to Lord Brahma by Lord Vishnu and
Dashlakshan (ten indents) of Bhagwad etc.
ATH SARGOVISARGASHCH STHANAM POSHNAMUTAYAH |
MANVANTARE SHANUKATHA NIRODHO MUKTIRASHRAYAH ||
DASHAMASY VISHUDDAYARTHAM NAVANAMIM LAKSHANAM |
contains 8 sub-sections.
VIDURODDHAV SANVADAH KSHATRMAITREY YOSTATHA |
PURAN SANHITA PRASHNO MAHA PURUSH SANATHITIH ||
AVATARO BhagwadAH KAPILASY MAHATMANAH |
DEVHUTYASHCH SANVADH KAPILEN CHA DHIMATA ||
Shri Shukdevji says, "O Parikshit, Vidurji deserted his homely comforts
and luxuries because he had to protest against injustice." When, after
losing in the game of dice, the Pandavas successfully passed the period
of their exile and stay in guise, and were denied even then of their
rightful share in the kingdom, Vidurji was summoned for consultations.
Vidurji had then suggested Dhritrashtra thus "O king, if you wish to
save your family, you please abandon Duryodhan who is an embodiment of
all the evils. He is jealous of none other than Lord Krishna. That is
why you are getting dull day by day and loosing your radiance." These
words infuriated Duryodhan so much so that he began to abusively insult
Vidurji. But, Vidurji didn't mind his words even though he felt
seriously hurt at heart. Accepting his insult as a play of God, Vidurji
silently left Hastinapur and went on a pilgrimage.
GAM PARYATAN YEDHYAVIVIKTVRITIH |
SADAPLUTOADHAH SHAYANOAVADHUTAH ||
ALAKSHITAH SVAIRAVDHUT VESHO |
VRATANI CHERE HARITOSHANANI ||
Travelling through various pilgrimage places, Vidurji reached Prabhas
region where he got the news of total destruction of the Kaurvas. The
news deeply moved him. In search of solace, he continued to wander from
one place of pilgrimage to another place. During his wandering, when he
reached the banks of the river Yamuna, Vidurji met Uddhavji the selfless
and calm server of God. They both met affectionately and enquired about
the wellbeing of each other. They were both reflecting on the plays of
Lord Krishna and feeling extreme joy. Vidurji had also got the news of
departure of Lord Krishna to his abode and destruction of Yadavas by
fierce infightings. So he was extremely depressed also. Uddhavji told
him that Lord Krishna himself had bestowed His grace on him and preached
Bhagwad gyan, which He had once preached to Lord Brahma. By the dictate
of Lord, Uddhavji was going to Badrikasharma. So he suggested Vidurji to
see Maitreya for the metaphysical knowledge, for before departing to his
abode, Lord Krishna had dictated him (Maitreya) to preach Bhagwad to
Vidurji. As per the suggestion, Vidurji reached Haridwar and saw the
sage Maitrey on the banks of the river Ganges.
The pious Vidurji respectfully greeted the sage Maitreya and said, "O
lord, the people in this world perform various actions with a desire to
have pleasure. But neither do they get pleasure nor is their sorrow
removed. Their sorrow increases instead. What is good then, is this
KAROTI LOKE |
NA TAIH SUKMAM VANYADUPARAMAN VA ||
VINDETMUYAS TAT OEVAM DUKHAM |
YADATR YUKTAM BHAGWAN VADENNAM ||
O great among the sages, kindly preach me the way to peace, following
which, one meets the God who then takes abode in the heart of his
devotee and instills in him the Santan Gyan (eternal knowledge) that
lets the devotee feel the direct presence of Him.
VARYADISH VARTM SHAM NAH, SAMRADHITO BHAGWAN YEN PUNSAM ||
HRIDSTHITO YACHCHHATI BHAKTI PUTE, GYANAM SATA TVADHI GAMAM PURANAM ||
Thus asked with devotion by Vidurji, Mahatma Maitreya illuminated the
glory of God and other events like creation of universe by illusion and
origin of colossus body, and said: No one can measure the eternal glory
of God and the illusions created by Him.
In the beginning God created the primitive elements and the flaws
associated with them. Then he created the colossus universe and entered
inspiration of God and because of imbalance in pious virtues,
creation of Mahattatva (the soul) was the first (Mahattatva the
Mahattatva (the soul) originates Ahankaar (the ego) which generates
five primitive elements (the earth, the fire, the air, the water and
the ether), sense organs and motor organs.
Tanmatras (the subtle forms of matter) that generate the five major
elements, is the third creation.
organs that have the power of sensing and moving is the fourth
the mind that governs the senses and was appeared from ego, is the
mind and the illusions that misguide it, is the sixth creation.
mentioned six creations are known as natural creations also.
Creatures other than these six have no power of knowledge, they can
experience the touch only. These creatures like trees and other
vegetables are known as the seventh creation.
creation is of the birds and animals.
creation is of those human beings who seek pleasure in action and
luxuries which are infact the cause of sorrow.
creation is of the great sages like Sanatkumar etc. Thus at the
beginning of the Kalp, God the creator used Rajogunas (royal
virtues) to create himself in the form of the universe.
Maitreyaji says, "
This whole creation is a manifestation of the plays of God. That
omnipotent God created the universe just by His wish and for the sake of
His play. For the extension of the creation, Lord Brahma wished and
create four sons-Sanak, Sanandan, Sanatan and Sanatkumar.
Thereafter, with a
desire to create world, Lord Brahma ordered them to produce population.
But Lord Brahma's sons had no interest in wordily affairs. Lord Brahma
therefore cursed them to remain in children's form for ever. Then from
Lord Brahma's eyebrows appeared a baby, blue-red in color. The baby
appeared in eleven forms and began to cry immediately after his arrival.
Lord Brahma consoled him! "Don't cry my son, you will be named as
Rundra." So the eleven forms of the baby came to be known as eleven
Rundras. Rundranis (female Rundra) were also created. From Tamas
Prakriti (malignant nature) Rundra created the ghosts, the spooks, the
spectres, the devils, lamias etc. Afraid by their appearances, Lord
Brahma prayed Rudra, " O Mahadev, please stop creating such formidable
organisms. They are already enough in number. Now, you please undertake
penance to comfort all the creatures."
Thereafter, Lord Brahma created ten more sons-Marichi, Bhrigu, Kratu,
Pulah, Pulatsya, Angira, Atri, Vashishtha, Daksh and Narad. Nine out of
them took permission for the creation of their offsprings, but Narad
accepted celibacy and resolved to preach Bhagwad bhakti (devotion for
For the continuation of the creation, Lord himself appeared as a female
from the left hand and as a male from the right hand of Lord Brahma.
Those males and females forms were named Manu and Shatarupa
respectively. They were the first in the whole creation to copulate and
bring about sexual reproduction. They begot two sons- Priyvrat and
Uttanapad, and three daughters- Devhuti, Akuti and Prasuti. As the
primitive king, Manu was the fosterer of the earth. By then a demon
named Hiranyaksh abducted the earth and hid it under the abyssimal depth
of the ocean, causing worries for Lord Brahma. Instantly Lord appeared
himself in Varah (boar) incarnation and to do away with Lord Brahma's
worries, He at once entered the depth of the ocean and rescued the earth
on His long teeth. On the way the Lord had an encounter with Hiranyaksh
and killed the demon with His wheel.
Maitreya: says Hiranyaksh represented anger. Those who don't want to
discharge their duties, but still wish to live with all the comforts are
abductors of others wealth. Such people, who continuously interfere with
equal distribution of wealth, must be condemned as the demons.
On the origin of the demons, Maitreya cryptic said, once Diti, the wife
Maharshi Kashyap, expressed her desire to conceive. Maharshi Kashyap
tried to disuade her that time was not suitable for an auspicious job
like conception. But Diti kept on insisting and forced her husband
shamelessly to assist her in the process. Consequently she conceived
during the dusk. Kashyapji cautioned her "you will give birth to the
demons." And with the arrival of the demons in Diti's womb, nature began
to manifest herself adversely.
There was terror and famine all around, and darkness prevailed even
during day, with stars appearing in the sky. Frightened by these
manifestations, the gods asked Lord Brahma about the reason of all those
disturbances. Lord Brahma informed them that two dread demons were to
take birth from Diti. Those two demons, told Lord Brahma, were the two
gatekeepers-- Jay-Vijay, of the Lord's abode. Once, Sanakadi Kumar had
gone to Vaikunthdham (the abode of God) to see God but those two
gatekeepers didn't let them in. Sanakadi tried thrice, but only to be
stymied every time by those two gatekeepers at the gates. Hence,
Sanakadi Kumar cursed them to take birth on earth as demons. Those two
gatekeepers of the God's abode Jay-Vijay appeared first as
Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha, second time as Ravan and Kumbhkuran and
third time as Duntvakra and Shishupal.
Continuing the process of creation, Brahma produced Sage Kardam from his
shadow and asked him to observe penance first. Thereafter, Brahma
dictated Kardam to acquire physical strength and the strength of his
sense and undertake the process of creating his offsprings. As per his
father's dictate, Kardam observed severe penance. Pleased by his
selfless penance, God asked Kardam to seek a boon. Karadam said, "Lord
all the things in the world are ephemeral; only you're eternal. It will
be an abuse of the intelligence to beg for some ephemeral thing from an
Overwhelmed by Kardam's plain words, God said in benediction 'On the
third day from now you will be married to Devhuti, the daughter of Manu.
Nine daughters will take birth in your home. I will myself appear as
your son' Saying this, God disappeared. As per the boon Kardam got
married to Devhuti, the daughter of Manu. Their formal marriage was the
first of it's kind in the creation, adopted as a religiously accepted
means for continuation of life. Donating their daughter Devhuti to the
sage Kardam, Manu and Shatarupa returned to their abode. As Mata Parvati
used to serve Lord Lord Shiva, similarly Devhuti served Kardam with
Once the sage Kardam noticed that Devhuti has aged and shriveled by
harsh living. Pleased by her dedication, Kardam asked her to seek a
boon. Devhuti only begged that there should never be any lethargy in any
service on her part towards him. Pleased again by her pure feelings
Kardam provided her with heavenly luxuries. Together they enjoyed those
luxuries for many years during which nine daughters were born to them.
All those daughters symbolised the Navadha Bhakti (nine kinds of
devotion) and were married to nine Prajapatis like Marichi etc. Thus
kala was married to Marichi, Anusuya to Atri, Shraddha to Angira,
Havirbhu to Pulatsya, Gati to Pulah, Shanti to Atharva, Krita to Kratu,
Khyati to Bhrigu and Arundhati was married to the sage Vashishtha.
Married life of Kardam and Devhuti is a lesson for all the civilized
couples of the world. Abiding to the limits of human behaviour in
married life is a guarantee for the wellbeing of the couple. Without
religion and morality, a man is not more than an animal. Kardam and
Devhuti followed strict rules to welcome the arrival of eternal God.
Thus, in due time, God appeared as their son. With His arrival the gods
showered flowers. Lord Brahma alongwith his sons welcomed the God and
said 'O pious daughter of Manu, Shri Hari has arrived as your son. He
will destroy the lust, and illusion and will preach his own philosophy.
He will be known in the world as Kapil.
ESH MANVITE GARBH PRAVISHTAH KAIV
AVIDYA SANSHA YA GRANTHI CHHITVA GAMVICHARISHYATI ||
AYAM SIDDH GANADHISHAH SHANKHYACHARYOH SUSAMMATAH |
LOKE KAPIL ITYA KHYAM GANTATE KIRTI VARDHANAH ||
Worshiping the lord Kapil, sage Kardam said 'O lord, by your grace, I'm
free now from all the three obligations and all my desires are now
granted.' With these words, Kardam took to asceticism.
Mata Devhuti prayed lord Kapil to preach the way for the benefaction of
the soul, which is attached with ephimeral body. Lord said 'O mother,
Adhayatma Yoga (spiritual conjugation) is the main way of benefaction
for the human beings. With devotion for me, soul becomes self-knowing.
Total devotion of the soul in my form and virtues and listening my
tales, unmistakably show devotion. This leads to an inseparable rapport
between my devotee and me. This is the greatest benefaction for the
ETAVANEV LOKEASMIN PUNSAM NISHREY SODAYAH
TIVREN BHAKTI YOGEN MANOMARYARPITAM STHIRAM ||
The world is like an ocean of death and I cause salvation of those who
give up all their lusts and recite my name with fervent devotion. This
whole nature has different forms, but it is ephimeral and constantly
changing. It has twenty-four divisions-five major elements (ether, air,
fire, water and earth); five souls (sound, touch, appearance, fluid and
smell); five sense organs (eyes, nose, ears, tongue and skin); five
motor organs (mouth, hands, legs, penis and bones) and mind,
intelligence, conscience and ego.
That omnipresent Purush (an epithet of God) voluntarily accepted
Prakriti (an epithet for female force). From her various virtues,
Prakriti created various creatures that corresponded exactly to the
virtues that caused their creation. In the mess, the mantle that covered
the knowledge also caused illusion for the Jivatma (microcosm of
omnipotent spirit) which thus forgot his original appearance.
The creature then began to assume the nature as a reflection of his own
appearance-- though she is different from and opposite to him-- and
himself as the doer. Such an ego regarding ones duties leads to his
entanglement in the cycles of life and death. Differentiating between
the Prakriti and Purush and experiencing their real appearances
respectively, introspecting sages have had a sight of the Supreme Being
through their conscience and achieve the unparrlel Brahma Pada.
Lord Kapil says, "Through the union of the sperm and the ovum, the human
body appears as a lump in the womb. His body forms completely within six
months. Sense organs develop thereafter. Twenty fifth element, the soul,
then enters the human body. With that, the body begins to experience
hunger and thirst. Then suffering with many kinds of desires, the
microcosm prays me to save him from the tortures of staying in the womb.
I present him with a sight of me in his heart.
It then takes birth because of my grace. But as soon as it appears on
the earh the human being begins to forget me. Still, I present him with
my sight for two to three months more, when he begins to laugh. But
people arooound him think that he is laughing for his mother. Nobody
reminds him of me in his childhood. Youth of a human being passes in
futile activities. In old age, his organs begin to fail and a human
being finds himself unable to recite my name. Thus, the whole life of a
human being just passes in the illusion of 'I', 'me' and 'my' and he
reaches his last stage, and begins to realize his mistake. But then it
is usually too late for him to do anything for his benefaction. If he
has done any good deed in life, he may meet fortune, but without a
devotion for me, no one can be happy. Only when the soul comes in my
refuge, he gets free from the bondages of life and death.
Maitre says, O Vidur, thereafter Devhuti concentrated her mind in the
divine appearance of Shri Hari, as presented by Lord Kapil. At once, she
got free from all the sufferings. She got a sight of God in her
conscience and her body transformed into a holy river. The place where
Mata Devhuti received salvation is still known as Siddhi Pada. It is a
renowned place of pilgrimage.
contains 5 sub-sections.
Maitrey then related the description of the Manu's daughters. Manu and
Shatarupa had three daughters- Akuti, Devhuti and Prasuti. Akuti was
married to a Prajapati named Ruchi. They begot two children-- a son and
a daughter. The son later on came to be known as Yagyavatar of Lord
Narayana, while the daughter was named Dakshina. In due course, Yagya
and Dakshina begot twelve sons- Tosh , Pratosh, Santosh, Bhadra, Shanti,
Indrapati, Idhm, Kavi, Vibhu, Swanh, Sudev and Rochan.
Manu's second daughter Devhuti was married to the sage Kardam. They
begot nine daughters who were married, in due course to nine Prajapatis.
One of them, named Kala, was married to the sage Marichi. They begot
Kashyap and Purnima. Their offsprings comprise today's population of the
entire world. Gati was the wife of Pulah. They begot three sons
Karmshreshtha, Variyan and Sahishnu.
Pleased by the penance of Ansuya and Atri, the Tridevas (trinity of
Brahma, Vishnu and Lord Shiva) sent their parts as the sons to the
hermit couple. Among them Chandrama appeared from Brahma's part,
Dattatreya from Vishnus part and sage Durvasa appeared from Lord Shiva's
To Shardha and Angira were born four daughters- Simivali, Kuhu, Raka and
Anumati. They begot two sons also- Utathya and Brihaspati. Havirbhu was
married to Pulastya. They begot two sons- Agastya and Vishrava. In later
course, sage Vishrava produced Yakshraj Kuber from Idvida, while his
second wife Keshini gave birth to Ravan, Kumbhkaran and Vibhishan.
Vashishth and his wife Arundhati begot seven Bramarishis like
Chitraketu. Sage Atharva and his wife Chitti begot a son Taponishth.
Geat sage Bhrigu and his wife Khyati begot two sons- Dhata and Vidhata,
and a daughter- Shri.
Manu's third daughter Prasuti was married to Daksh, the son of Lord
Brahma. She got sixteen daughters. Daksh married thirteen of them to
Dharm. Of the remaining three daughters, one was married to Agni, one to
Pitrgana and one to Lord Lord Shiva. Shraddha, Maitri, Daya, Shanti,
Tushti, Pushti, Kriya, Unnati, Buddhi, Medha, Titiksha, Hree and Murti
are the wives of Dharma. Of these Murti begot the sages Nar-Narayan.
Swaha the wife of Agni begot three sons- Pavak, Pawaman and Shuchi. Two
daughters were born to Swadha the wife of Pitrganas. They were named
Dharini and Vayuna. These both daughters were Brahma vadinis (expounders
of vedas.) Sati, the youngest daughter of Daksh and wife of Mahadev,
however could not begot any offspring because she had committed
immolation in her youth as a protest against her father's misbehaviour
with her husband Mahadev.
Vidur asked Maitrey: 'Lord Shiva is an idol of peace. He has no enemity
with anyone. He is self indulgent Why did then Daksh Prajapati misbehave
Maitrey said, " Once a meeting of Brahmavadis (expounders of vedas) was
organized. Alongwith all the gods Lord Shiva and Brahma were also
present in the meeting. Because of being a Prajapati, Daksh was allowed
a late entry in the meeting. Moreover, when Daksh did arrive, all the
gods, except Brahma and Lord Shiva, stood up to pay him regards. Honor
by thousands of gods did not please Daksh as much as he felt insulted
the by behaviour of Lord Shiva.
Brahma was the father of Daksh, so he didn't mind his behaviour. But
seeing Lord Shiva sitting there and not paying due respect to him, Daksh
got angry. He said, "He is like my disciple. I've married my daughter to
him but he is uncourteous and irreligious. I committed a blunder by
marrying my daughter to him. He smears ashes of pyre and roams at the
cremation sites. Only the ghosts are his companions." Thus, Daksh cursed
Lord Shiva. "May this Lord Shiva not get his due share alongwith the
Gods in oblations."
Nandi, the prominent among Lord Shiva's servers, cursed Daksh in
retaliation: "May the unwise Daksh lose his mind and be like an animal
always bound to a woman." Thereafter indignant Lord Shiva at once left
the meeting alongwith his followers. But still Daksh didn't put the
matter at rest. To behumble Lord Shiva,he organised a grand yagya named
Barhaspati. All the Brahmarishis, devarishis, pitars, gods etc. attended
the yagya alongwith their wives.
From her abode on Kailash, Sati saw all the gods going through air to
the grand occasion. She also learned about the grand yagya organised by
her father Daksh. Out of curiosity, she insisted her husband Lord Lord
Shiva, "O Vamdev, your father-in-law, Daksh Prajapati has organised a
grand feast. If you wish, should we also go there to attend the feast. I
desire to see my beloved mother, sisters, and other relatives." Lord
Shiva replied! "O beautiful, though one may go without invitation to his
parents' home, may visit teachers and siblings. But your father resents
me. So it is not good if we go there uninvited. I will not tolerate if
he humiliates you. So, you should not go there, because a humiliation by
a near one may cause immediate death.'
In fact, Sati had a logical mind, while Lord Shiva gave more weightage
to faith than logic.
Sati even had a doubt regarding God's incarnation as Lord Rama, that how
could Parbrahma Parmatma, who is the father of all, be a son of any
human being. Moreover, how could the Supreme Being be in so much sorrow
because of his wife's separation. Lord Shiva and Sati, therefore, had a
sight of Lord Rama in exile. Lord Shiva silently saluted Lord Rama's
appearance, while Sati decided to give Rama a test. So taking a guise of
Sita, Sati appeared before Rama. Lord Rama knew everything so he
regarded her as Sati. He also showed her some of His glories.
Now Sati had firm belief in Lord Rama. She returned to Lord Shiva and
gave her verdict that Lord Rama was indeed an incarnation of supreme
Being. But Lord Shiva was much disturbed by Sati because of her taking
the guise of Sita.
Lord Shiva had, therefore, acquired an indifferent stance towards Sati.
Thus she was feeling anguished by Lord Shiva's behaviour. Hence she
prayed silently: 'O Lord, may my body be destroyed soon, as this body is
not able to serve Lord Shiva'
Hence, when she heard about the grand feast organised by her father, in
abject violation of her husband's dictate, Sati got ready to attend the
feast. Lord Shiva too sent her with a lot of gifts and servants. There
at Daksh's palace Sati found that all were ignoring her because of her
father's fear.Even her sisters laughed at her for coming alone. In all,
Sati found nothing favourable in her father's home. Only her mother
welcomed her that too in isolation. Indignant, Sati went straight to the
Yagya Mandap (canopy for performing oblation) and found that no seat had
been allotted there for Lord Shiva.
With anger she said; 'Even the mere name of Lord Shiva is enough to
destroy all the sins of the humans. No one can violate His dictate. And
you, O father, feel jealous of such an auspicious figure, holy, Lord
Lord Shiva, who is soul of every living being. I am ashamed of having
this body produced from an opponent of Lord Shiva, like you.' Saying
these words, Sati threw herself in the flames of Yagyagni(the fire of
the Yagya) Thereafter, Lord Shiva's ganas (servers) destroyed the Yagya.
They beheaded Daksh and dropped his head in the altar. Other gods and
the sages were also punished for showing disrespect for Lord Shiva.
Ultimately, Lord Brahma, accompanied by the gods, went to Kailash and
pacified Lord Lord Shiva. Ashutosh Lord Shiva granted them a boon to
carry the Yagya to completion.
In her next birth, Sati was born in the home of Himalayas. She was named
as Parvati. Sober, cool, and an idol of faith, Mata Parvati dedicated
herself fully to Lord Lord Shiva. Narad gave her a talisman to get Lord
Shiva as her husband. Lord Narayan himself requested Lord Shiva to
accept Parvati as his wife. Lord Shiva accepted to get married with
Parvati. Thus, through hard penance, Mata Parvati got Lord Shiva as her
husband. In due course the auspicious marriage of Mata Parvati with Lord
Shiva took place.
The self-begotten Manu had two sons- Priyvrat and Uttanpad. King
Uttanpad had two queens- Suniti and Suruchi. Uttanpad loved Suruchi more
than he loved Suniti. So Suniti was forced to live outside the royal
palace with her son Dhruv, while Suruchi and her son Uttam enjoyed all
the luxuries in the palace. Once the King was playing with his soon
Uttam who was siting in his lap. Meanwhile, Dhruv too arrived there and
began insisting to sit in his father's lap. But for the fear of Suruchi
the king did not take Dhruv in his lap. Just then, Suruchi too arrived
there. Strutting at her fortune, she ridiculed Dhruv: 'Though you are
also a son of the king, but you have no right to sit on the throne
because you are not borne to me. You are the son of queen Suniti who is
neglected by the King, and now lives like a mistress. So your desire is
hard to accomplish. Even then if you wish to have the throne, you begin
to worship Lord Narayana, and take birth through me by His grace and
then wait for your chance to sit in the King's lap.'
Hurt by his stepmother's harsh words, Dhruv came to his mother crying.
When Suniti heard about the incidence, she felt very sorry. Still, with
patience she consoled her son Dhruv, 'O my son, don't wish ill for the
others. Those who cause sorrow for others, have to face the outcome
themselves one day. Your stepmother is right. You have been born to me.
Even then, if you wish to be enthroned like the prince Uttam, give up
your jealousy and start worshipping Lord Narayan. Even you're grand
father Manu and great grand father Lord Brahma worshipped him. Only Lord
Narayan can remove your sorrow.'
Mother's words shook the conscience of Dhruv. He at once set out with
firm determination to please Shri Hari by penance. Leaving the town,
while going in search of solitude he met devarshi Narad in the way.
Dhruv respectfully greeted Narad. Narad lovingly caressed his head and
tried to test his determination. Narad tried everything to convince
Dhruv to send him back to his home, but he failed to shake the firm
determination of the boy. Then with kindness, Narad preached Dhruv about
Lord's appearance and gave him a mantra.
Thus, Naradji performed his duty as Guru and blessing Dhruv, he
disappeared. Dhruv arrived in Madhuvan and took a seat under a Kadamb
(Cadamba) tree on the bank of the river Yamuna. There he began to recite
the mantra and meditation. During the first month he ate roots and
tubers. In the second month he ate dried leaves. During the third month
he managed with Yamuna's water. During the fourth month he sustained
himself on the air only. Dhruv even stopped breathing. Now, standing on
one leg only, he was fully concentrated in Lord Vasudev. At the moment
when Dhruv stopped breathing and concentrated in Parbrahma, all the
three worlds shook with fear.
All the gods ran to the refuge of Lord. Because of stopping of breath
all the organisms stood still.Assuring them not to be afraid, Lord
arrived in Madhuvan to see His beloved devotee Dhruv. Seeing the Lord
Himself arrived before him, Dhruv's eyes filled with tears. He said, " O
Lord, I don't know how to worship you." Lord touched his cheek with His
conch. With that, Dhruv came to realize the glory of God. With complete
devotion and folded hands, he worshiped Shri Hari: "I salute to such an
omnipotent, omnipresent and all knowing Lord, whose power is present in
everybody, and who entering my heart revived my speech." Pleased by his
prayer Lord stroked Dhruv's head and said, " Your desire shall
materialize. After enjoying your kingdom, you shall come to my abode
which is far above the Saptrishis?
Then by God's permission, Dhruv returned to his father's palace. There
he was given a grand welcome. Everyone wants to be kind with the one who
has God's grace, his father handed him the kingdom of the entire earth.
His brother, Uttam had gone to the forest for hunting where the Yakshas
killed him. Indignant by his brother's death, Dhruv at once launched an
attack on the Yakshas. But his grandfather consoled him that the
devotees of God don't long for revenge. Thereafter Dhruv ruled the earth
for a period of thirty-six thousand years. Even death bowed before him.
Indeed, the devotees of God have no fear of death. The death fears them
on the contrary.
In the lineage of the king Dhruv, had occurred a king named Anga. Anga's
wife was Sumita, who was the daughter of Mrityadev. They had a son named
Ven who was evil in nature. When he grew up and occupied the throne, he
became a very cruel ruler. Day by day his atrocites increased. Then he
began to openly insult the greatmen. When his atrocities became
uncontrollable, sages killed him by their curse to salve the people.
Thereafter, the sages churned Ven's dead body and produced a couple- a
man and a woman. The man was born by the world-preserving part of Lord
Vishnu. He came to be known as Prithu. He got an extremely pretty wife
Archi. Prithu was the Acharya (master) of Lord Archan Bhakti. With his
occupying the throne, the subjects became religious, happy and
moral-abiding people. Everything was going well in his kingdom, when one
day the farmers approached him and complained, "O king, the earth has
grown rude. She does not give us cereals, even though we sow a lot of
seeds in every season. She eats them all." King Prithu set out at once
to chastise the earth who ran in the form of a cow to save herself.
Scolding at her king Prithu said, "O Vasudhu (earth) I will kill you.
You have violated my rule." The earth then came to his shelter and
begged for pardon. " O king it is not my fault my fertility has ended
because of the sins of the king Ven. Now, I'm present before you in the
form of a cow. Now, you please exploit me fully to make everybody
King Prithu resolved then and there to perform a hundred Ashvmedh
Yagyas. His ninety-nine Yagyas completed unabatedly. But during the
hundredth Yagya, Indra kidnapped the horse deceitfully. Indra had
himself performed one-hundred Ashvmedh Yagyas. He could not tolerate
anybody equaling him, for then the performer would have equal claim on
Indraasana (the seat of Indra.)
Prithu's son was Vijitashva. He had seen Indra stealing the horse
deceitfully. He even chased Indra for some distance, but Indra
transformed himself into a hermit. Somehow, the oblation completed, and
God appeared and asked the king to seek a Boon. King Prithu begged, " O
Lord, my soul remains unsatiated by your tales. So if you are pleased
with me, kindly give me a hearing equal to the hearings of ten thousand
Sanakadiks preached knowledge to the king Prithu. Thereafter, fostering
his subjects religiously, king Prithu ruled the earth for thousand
years. During the rule, king's popularity spread in leaps and bounds. At
last he got the supreme position of god." Thus narrating the tale of
Prithu, Maitrey says to Vidur: 'those who listen to this tale of Prithu,
that shows the glory of God, get a strong affection for God and receive
salvation ultimately, like Prithu.'
King Prithu's son was Vijitashu. In his lineage later on occurred a king
named Prachin Barhi. King Prachin Barhi had many sons. All of them were
known as Prachetas, they were all devotees of God and had been sunk in
devotion since their childhood. Pleased by their devotion once Lord
Shiva appeared before them. With simplicity, Prachetas asked, " O Lord
of the lords, we have been worshipping Narayana, how did you arrive
Lord Shiva said, " Those who have devotion for Narayan, are also dear to
me." Thereafter Lord Shiva gave them Rudra Geet which the Prachetas
continued to sing for years immersed in the water.
King Prachinbarhi had a great interest in oblations that involved
sacrifice. One-day devarshi Narad asked him, "What are you doing, O
king?" Miseries don't end by action alone, nor does one get supreme joy.
The animals which you have sacrificed for your oblations also feel the
pain given by you. They are all waiting for you in the heaven. When you
go there after death they will take revenge one by one." Frightened by
these words, King Prachinbarhi took shelter at Narad and said, "
Devarshi, my mind is caught in the actions. You kindly show me the way
to the supreme salvation."
At the request of the king, Narad narrated him the tale of Vigyat and
Avigyat. At the behest of Avigyat, Vigyat migrated to and settled in a
beautiful city. There he met the queen Puranjani and got married to her.
He was so much indulged in sensual pleasures with Puranjani that he
became a woman in the next birth. As a woman, Vigyat got married in due
course, but was widowed soon. She wanted to commit Sati
(self-immolation) but people prevented her.
One-day she was travelling on an elephant, when she spotted some swans
in the sky. She asked the mahout to look at them. As soon as the
mahout's attention diverted, the elephant got out of control and both of
them fell on the ground and died. As she was looking at the swans at her
last time, she became a swan in her next birth. As a swan she reached
the lake Manasarovar, where she met her old friend Avigyat who consoled
the swan. "You are neither a man nor a woman, We are both swans now. You
are same as me, no different from me. It means that there is no
difference between the living beings and the God. There is only one
soul. It's because of non-knowledge that one sees the God and the living
beings differently." Thus cautioned by his friend Avigyat, Vigyat
realized and accepted his incarnation as a swan.
But, the king Prachinbarhi didn't get the meaning of the spiritual tale.
Narad then revealed. "God is Avigyat while microcosm is Vigyat. Avigyat
has established eighty-four lakhs cities and asked Vigyat to select any
one of them. After sorting lakhs of cities the microcosm selects a city
like the human body. That city has a lake in the center-the belly from
where the whole city is controlled. Again it has nine gates-two eyes,
two nostrils, one mouth, two ears, one reproductive organ and one anus.
It is such a highway, treading which no one returns. It has two
courtiers- mind and ego. The living being passes his life caught between
Queen Puranjani is the intellect in this body. Because of this intellect
or non-knowledge the living being or microcosm begins to feel in terms
of 'I', 'My' and 'Me' for his body and organs. All the ten organs are
his friends, through which the living being experiences the sensation
and performs action. Inclinations of the organs are his friends. All the
five Pranas (breaths) are the five-hooded serpent that guards the body.
Old age is Kaal Kanya who launches an attack on the city (human body).
Shoka and Moha (sorrow and attachment) are the two brothers of Kaal
Kanya. Kaal Kanya is married to Chandveg who is also known as Varsh
(year). It has three hundered and sixty Gandharvas (the days of the
year). Twelve months are his twelve commanders and seven days are the
ministers. They all together plunder the human body like the city of
Puranjan. Thus, covered by Agyan (non-knowledge), the living being,
which has a great pride on his body, virtually wastes his life suffering
different kinds of pains.
From this mystical preaching Prachinbarhis inclination for Vedic
Karmkands (action) and temptation for mundane luxuries were removed. By
the grace of Devarshi Narad, the king got a perception of God and living
being. He at once abdicated his attachment for the body and concentrated
his mind in God.
contains 3 sub-sections.
Hearing the tale of Prachetas' devotion and receiving God's grace by
them, a curiosity arose in the mind of the king Parikshit about
self-knowledge and Grihasth Dharm (duties of a married person). He asked
Shukdev, "O Brahmin, Priyvrat was a supreme devotee and self-indulgent.
Why did he then live in Grihasthi (married life)? Married life is
binding from all sides. Greatmen never long for married life. Even then
the king Priyurata lived a married life yet he regularly prayed to God.
This is an intriguing subject for me, kindly remove my doubts.
Seeing Parikshit's curiosity and doubts, Shri Shukdev said, "O king you
are right that once receiving God's grace one can't leave it. No
attachment, no love remains in him for life. The prince Priyurata was a
great devotee of God (Bhagwad Bhakt). By the grace of Narad he had
instinctively become aware of Parmarth tatva (knowledge that leads to
salvation). He had dedicated all his actions into the feet of Lord
Vasudev. Thus, an intense inclination for detachment developed in
Priyvrata since his childhood. So, Lord Brahma tried to admonish him.
"Son, you are too young yet to be an ascetic. Since the moment you've
acquired the human body, enemies like Kama (sex), Krodh (anger) Moha
(affection), Lobh (greed), Mada (ego), Matsar (jealousy) etc. have been
continuously chasing it. We're all bound to follow the path laid down by
God. We should serve Him by our action, accepting our body, which the
God has given to us and the merits associated with it. Hence, you first
enjoy the luxuries given by God, thereafter you will be free to do what
Thus, as per the dictate of Lord Brahma, the king Priyvrata accepted two
wives. His first wife was Prajapati Vishwkarma's daughter Barhismati.
She begot ten sons- Agnidhra, Idhmjihv, Yagyabahu, Mahavir, Miranyreta,
Savan, Medhatithi, Dhriprishth, Vitihotra and Kavi. Priyvrat's second
wife begot three sons- Uttam, Raiwat and Tamas. Out of these ten sons,
three became celibate. All the three sons from the second wife became
the lords of different Manvantaras. Despite leading married life, the
king remained an ascetic. In his chariot, he travelled around the land
and divided it into seven parts and appointed each of his seven sons as
the lord of one island. Agnidhra, the eldest son was given Jambu Dweep.
He was married to an elf Purvchitti. She had begotten nine sons who
became the ruler of the nine parts of Jambu Dweep. Merudevi was the wife
of Agnidhra's eldest son Nabhi. As a gift of Yagya, Lord had taken an
incarnation in his home. That incarnation of Lord is known as
Rishabhdev was married to Jayanti, the daughter of Indra. Jayanti gave
birth to one hundred sons. Bharat was the eldest among them. The
youngest nine sons became Yogeshwars. Eighty-one sons accepted
Brahaminism. Remaining nine brothers followed their elder brother
Bharat. One day Rishabhdev called a meeting of his sons and preached
them about the well being of human beings. "Sons" he said, "Never misuse
this human body. You have got this human life by great luck and God's
grace. He does not deserve to be called as a friend, teacher or father
who does not preach his friend, disciple or son about the welfare of the
self." Preaching that Rishabhdev enthroned Bharat and himself departed
for his supreme abode.
The king Bharat was a great devotee. By his father's permission he had
married to Panchjam, the daughter of Vishurupa. They begot five sons.
Bharat dedicated his religious actions to Lord Vasudev. Thus by the
purification of his actions, his conscience was also purified. So he
transferred the kingdom to his son and himself took an abode in
Pulahashram (hermitage of Pulah) on the banks of the river Gandaki.
There he passed his time in the worship of God.
One fine morning, when he was performing libations in the river, a
pregnant Doe arrived on the opposite bank to drink water. At that time a
lion roared somewhere in the forest behind her. Frightened by the roar,
the doe jumped into the river to save her life. But the doe lost her
life in the action while her foetus fell in the river.
Feeling pity for the fawn, Rajarshi Bharat took it and began to foster
it. Day by day Bharat's affection grew for the fawn. Slowly he became
irregular in his daily routine. But Bharat loved the fawn more than his
routine. When the fawn grew into a deer, by its natural instinct it
joined its mates. On his return, Bharat did not find the deer and grew
so restless that he died out of depression. As his mind was fixed on the
deer at death, he was born in his next birth as a deer. Bharat was a
prudent man. But affection did not spare even him.
What would be the fate of common people then? They are easy targets of
the feelings and are more vulnerable to fall prey to attachment and
affection. When a derangement occurs in the intellect of man, he begins
to conduct irreligiously, but thinks that his behaviour is religious.
Realizing his mistake, Bharat as a deer, came to his hermitage and once
again began his penance before God. Even in deer incarnation Bharat had
a strong feeling of detachment.
When Bharat's deer incarnation ended, he took his next birth in a
Brahmin's home. Sometime after the birth, his mother died. By God's
grace Bharat had remembrance of his previous birth. So he always
remained immersed in reflection on Hari (God.).To avoid attention he
posed himself as an insane stupid, blind and deaf person. Even his
brothers neglected him seeing his inertia. Now he was free to wander at
will. He was satisfied with what he got and doing menial jobs.
During that period, a thief, who had no son, wanted to offer a
human-sacrifice to Bhadrakali in desire of a son. Searching a right
person for the sacrifice, his men found and caught Jadabharat (In
Brahmin incarnation, Bharat was known by this name because of his
inactivity), who was guarding his farms then. Jada Bharat remained quite
indifferent and did not even resist his kidnapping. The thieves took him
into the temple. There as soon as the chief of the thieves raised his
sword to kill Jada Bharat, Bhadrakali appeared from the idol and
beheaded all the thieves. It shows that one has to bear the fruit
himself of the crime committed. But Jada Bharat did not experience this
and remained quite unmoved as before.
In another incidence, the king Rahugana of Sindhu was riding a palanquin
to the hermitage of the sage Kapil. On the way, he fell short for one
Kahar(carrier of the palanquin). His men found Jada Bharat who was
wandering nearby and yoked him also in carrying the palanquin. Jada
Bharat was walking cautiously so as not to tread on even little
creatures. Hence, the king was getting jerks and a bumpy ride. He
scolded at the Kahars. The Kahars informed him that the new recruit was
causing him those jerks. The king Rahungana then scolded at Jada Bharat.
"Hey, are you so frail that you can't balance the palanquin properly.
Don't you know that your master is riding in it? Wait, I'll teach you a
Jada Bharat stood fearlessly. The king was stunned to see him. It was
then that Jada Bharat opened his mouth to utter is first words. He felt
that he had carried the king on his shoulders, and though the king was a
haughty man, '...but my life will be a sheer wastage if I don't preach
the king a way to salvation...' So with a desire of benefiting the king
Jada Bharat said, " O king, life and death, strength and weakness are
the virtues of the body. But the soul is sinless. I have put all my
burden on the shoulders of the God. You too have great burden on your
head. Lord of everyone is one. Even your senses are not in your control
how then will you control your subjects? O king only knowledge is the
form of the soul. By knowledge alone you can recognize the soul. Union
with one homogenous and holy Supreme Being is the true introspection.
But as long as you don't bear the dust of great men's feet on your head,
you will not recognize the God.
Hearing these words, the king Rahungana fell at the feet of Jada Bharat
and begged his pardon. Jada Bharat then preached the king about the
metaphysical knowledge. "Listening to the tales of the God continuously
is the only way to concentrate one's mind in Shri Hari. In my previous
birth. I was the king of Bharatvarsh. But because of my attachment for a
deer, I was deviated from the path of supreme knowledge. Hence, I had to
take birth in deer form. But by the grace of Lord Krishna, memory of my
previous birth persisted in a deer incarnation also. So in my present
birth I prefer to stay away from the people and wander secretly. So,
from now on drop your attachments and start reciting God's name. By the
virtues of His tale alone you will easily get Him. O King, the body is
like a merchant, who is roaming on the earth borrowing this wealth of
age. It has lost its wealth in useless worldly affairs. One-day arrow of
the Kaal will snatch everything from it. So, the human being must
utilise their invaluable moments in the training of the supreme
Hearing the tale of the king Priyvrat's lineage, Parikshit asked
Shukdev: "O great sage, what is the expanse of the landmass? I wish to
hear a description of it alongwith it's islands, because this world is a
tangible idol of God alongwith his virtues. Hence, knowing it
intangible, infinitesimal form of God can also be known.'
Shukdev said: 'O King, illusions created by God are so vast that nobody
can find their end. Therefore, I will describe main features of the
world with the help of name, appearance, extent and symptoms. King
Priyvrata has divided the earth into seven islands. These islands are:
(1)Jambudweep, (2)Plukshdweep, (3)Shalmalidweep(4)Kushdweep,
(5)Kronchdweep, (6)Shakdweep and (7)Pushkardweep. All these islands are
surrounded by seven seas, which comprise of saline water, sugarcane
juices, and wine, ghee, milk, whay and sweet water respectively. Extent
of each island is double than that of it's preceding one.
Jambudweep: - Shukdev says, 'Situated in the centre of the world is
Jambudweep. It has an extent of one lakh Yojan. It has a round shape
like a lotus leaf. It has nine zones each with an extent of nine
thousand Yojan. These zones are called Varsh. Eight mountain ranges mark
the boundaries of these Varsh which are arranged in circular fashion. At
the centre of the Varsh, is the tenth Varsh named Illavrit. In the
center of Illavrit is Meru. Names of other nine Varsh are - Kinpurush,
Harivarsh, Kamyak, Hiranmaya, Kuru, Bhadrashwa, Ketumal and Bharat. Such
as the mount Meru is surrounded by Jamudweep, similarly Jamudweep is
surrounded by a vast sea. Because of a majority of Jamun (black berry)
trees, this island is named as Jambudweep.
As there is a huge Jamun (black berry) tree that is eleven hundred Yojan
high in Jambhudweep, similarly there are innumerable Pluksh (Pakur-Ficus
pinctoria) trees in Plukshdweep hence it's name. Agni (fire) is the
venerable God in this island. Priyvrata's son, King Idhmjihv was the
ruler of this island. He divided it into seven parts and made his seven
sons the ruler of these divisions. These seven divisions were named-
Shiv, Yavas, Subhadra, Shant, Kshem, Amrit and Abhay. These divisions
have seven mountains, and seven rivers. Plukshdweep has an extent of two
lakh Yojans. It is surrounded by an ocean of sugarcane juice.
Shalmalidweep: - Just double in extent than Plukshddweep, is
Shalmalidweep. It has a majority of Shalmali (silk cotton) trees, which
comprise the abode of Garud, the King of the birds. Priyvrata's son
Yagyabahu was the ruler of this island. He too made seven divisions in
the island as per his sons- Surocham, Devvarsh, Paribhadra, Ramanak,
Saumanasya, Apyayan and Avigyat. This island too has seven mountains and
seven rivers. Four classes of people inhabite this island. They worship
Vedmay Chandrama (the moon with vedas) This island is surrounded by a
sea of wine.
Kushdweep: - This island is surrounded by a sea of the Ghee. It
has an extent of eight Yojans, and a majority of Kush shrubs. From the
light of their tips, Kush shrubs illuminate this island. Priyvrata's son
Hiranyarata was the ruler of this island. Dividing the island into seven
divisions, he too appointed his seven sons as the ruler of each of these
divisions. These divisions are- Vasu, Vasuddana, Drirhruchi, Nabhigupta,
Stutyavrata, Vivikt and Vamaddev. People of Kushdweep worship the fire.
With an extent of sixteen lakh Yojan, Kraunchdweep is surrounded by the
sea of milk. There is a gigantic mountain named Kraunch on the dweep.
After this mountain the island is known as Kraunchdweep. Priyvrata's
son, King Ghritprishtha was the ruler of this island. He too divided the
island into seven divisions and distributed them between his seven sons,
one to each son. The names of these seven sons are- Aam, Madhuruh,
Meghprishth, Sudhama, Mrajishth, Lohitarn and Vanaspati. Inhabitants of
the island worship Varundev (Neptune) the lord of water.
Shakadweep: - Surrounded by the sea of whey is Shakadweep with an
extent of thirty-two lakh Yojans. It has a huge tree of Shaka, hence its
name. With a sweet fragrance of this tree, the whole island emits a
pleasant scent. The ruler of this island, Medhatithi was also a son of
Priyvrata. He too had seven sons- Purojav, Manojav, Pawamana, Dhumranik,
Chitraref, Bahurup and Vishwdhar. They were made the rulers of the seven
divisions of the island. People of the island use Pranayama to weaken
their Rajoguna and Tamoguna, and worship Hari (Vishnu) in Vayu(form)
Pushkardweep: - Pushkardweep has an extent of sixty-four Yojans.
It is surrounded by a sea of sweet water. There is present a huge lotus
flower with a million, golden petals. This lotus is regarded as a seat
of Brahma. Priyvrata's son Vitihotra was the ruler of this island. He
divided the island into two divisions, and made his sons Ramanak and
Dhataki the rulers of these divisions. Inhabitants of this island
worship Brahma appearance of Shrihari (Vishnu).
contains 7 sub-sections.
The king Parikshit requested Shukdev, "O preacher, so far you have
related about the way how to overcome attachment for wordily things.
Inadvertently, the lliving beings commit some kinds of sins or crimes. O
great soul, now kindly tell me the way by which humans can get rid
themselves of the tortures, they are supposed to be subjected to in the
Shukdev said, "A sinner is sure to be tortured in hell, unless and until
he had observed penance for his sins in his present birth. But even
penance is no guarantee of his salvation if the person indulges again in
sins thereafter. It is all because of ignorance, that desires to commit
sin does not end. Spiritual ways are, thereafter necessary. Adopting
spiritual ways like penance, celibacy, tranquility, self-restraint,
abdication, truthfulness, holiness, restraint of passions and
discipline, even the most serious sins are destroyed. Alternatively,
taking refuge at the God or developing a devotion for Him, all the sins
can be destroyed. O Parikshit, such a sanctification of the sinner as
achieved by dedication to God, is rare even by observing penance."
Shukdev narrated the tale that was once related by Muni Agastya. In the
town of Kannauj, lived a Brahmin named Ajamil. He had married to his
mistress. Being with an unchaste woman his Brahminical virtues had been
destroyed. Now, Ajamil earned his living not by performing holy tasks,
but instead he restored to petty tricks like plundering, deceiving and
even killing people to feed his family.
Once, a group of Mahatmas(ascetics)came to the town. People greeted and
offered them with edible items. But,the ascetics refused to accept
anything. They said that they would accept the food only from the
household where holy food is cooked for the Lord. Irritated people
showed the ascetics the way to Ajamil's home. From Ajamil, the ascetics
accepted the alms and themselves cooked the food, and offered it to God
and ate themselves. Now the heart of Ajamil and his wife were filled
The ascetics wished to cause some benefit for Ajamil. They said to him,
"If you get a son now, please name him Narayana. Ascetics words did
materialize and Ajamil got one more son, the tenth one. As per ascetics
advice, Ajamil named him Narayana. Being the youngest son, Narayana was
very dear to Ajamil. He used to remember Narayana always. Everything was
passing as usual, when the time of Ajamil's departure arrived suddenly
one day. Yamadutas (agents of Yama-the God of death) began to take him
for his last journey. Not seeing his youngest son Narayana before him,
Ajamil began to call out loudly: 'Narayana-Narayana.'
Hearing the calls, servers of Lord Vishnu too arrived their and
challenged Yamadutas. The frightened Yamadutas said, " We are the
servants of Dharmraj. Why are you stopping us?" Servers of Lord Vishnu
said, "If you are the servants of Dharmaraj define Dharma (religion)
then." Yamadutas said, "Actions dictated by Vedas are Dharma (religion)
in true sense, and the actions forbidden by Vedas are Adharma
(irreligious) and Veda is Narayana Himself."
The servers said, "You're unaware of Param Dharma (Supreme religion).
This sinner has called out the name of God, so his sins, from the past
crores of births, have been washed away. Now he is no more a sinner.
Wise men say that recitation of God's name by any means- as a name of
someone else, in derision or derogation- automatically does away with
all the sins. This is the bounty of God's name that a mere remembrance
of it- whether wittingly or unwittingly, does destroy all sins." Hearing
this dialogue, Ajamil awakened, as if from a long slumber.
Yamdutas had returned to Yamaloka by then. But, the abject sinner Ajamil
had recovered from the snare of death. Without losing a moment, Ajamil
went to the banks of the Ganges. There, drinking the holy water of the
Ganges he left his body and went and found a place in Vaikunth Loka-the
abode of Lord Vishnu.
Shukdev says, "Parikshit, when the servers of Lord Vishnu failed the
attempt of Yamadutas, they returned to Yamaloka and complained Yama
about the event." "O Yamadev, we had so far known that you are the sole
authority of punishing the people as per their deeds. No body had dared
so far to violate your rule. But today those four servers of Lord Vishnu
openly caused violation of your dictate." Yamaraja silently prayed Lord
Vishnu and said, " Lord Narayana is the Lord of all living things. He is
the Lord of me also, and I myself keep an account of the sins and pious
deeds of the living beings by His order only. All the God's, Digpals
(guardian of the direction), Shiv and Brahma etc. all of them follow His
dictates.The greatest duty of all the living beings is that they should
achieve a dedicated devotion for the Lord. Sons just look at the bounty
of Lord that even the sinner like Ajamil escaped the noose of death
simply by calling out the names of the God just once. So, from now on
you never go near those people who are reciting Lord's name or are his
devotees. Bring only the sinners to me."
Shukdev says, "Ten sons of the King Prachinbarhi were known as
Prachetas. They observed severe penance under the sea. When they
re-emerged, Chandra (the moon-the ruler of the vegetation) calmed them
and presented a beautiful daughter of the elf Prabhlocha, to them as
their wife. From her, Prachetas begot prachetas Daksh. In due course the
subject of Daksh spread all over the world and populated far off places.
Daksh created, first of all the gods, the demons and the human beings
who inhabited the heaven, the earth and the waters respectively.
But Daksh was not still satisfied. He therefore went to Vinddhyachal and
started a severe penance there. Pleased by his penance God appeared
before him. By the permission of God, Daksh Prajapati married with
Ashinki the daughter of Panchama Prajapati. From Ashinki Daksh got ten
thousand sons named Haryashva. In due course Daksh asked his sons to
reproduce. But instead of reproducing they all reached Narayana Sarovar
on the banks of the river Sindhu (Indus) to a place of Pilgrimage.
Besalved by the preaching of Narad about Bhagwad Dharma. Daksh again
produced one thousand sons named Shavlashva and asked them to reproduce.
But they too followed the footsteps of their elder brothers, and took no
interest in worldly affairs. Narad preached them also about Bhagwad
When Daksh came to realize that Narad had converted his sons into
ascetics by his preaching he angrily cursed Narad to be a wanderer for
ever with nowhere a place to stay on. Narad accepted Daksha's curse and
blessed him with a boon to have sixty daughters for the continuation of
his subject. By the virtue of the boon, sixty daughters were born in the
home of Daksh in due course. When they grew up, Daksh got ten of them
married to Dharma. Then ten to Kashyap, twenty-seven to Chandrama, two
to Angira and Krishashva each and remaining four daughters were married
to a Kashyap named Tarkshya. The entire world came to be populated by
the offsprings of these sixty daughters of Daksh.
Shukdev says, "Parikshit the names of Dharma's ten wives were Bhanu,
Lamba, Kakubhi, Jami, Vishwas, Sadhya, Marutvati, Vasu, Muhurta and
Sankalpa. Daksh's daughters Sarupa and Bhoota were the wives of Bhoot.
Sarupa begot uncountable Rudragans, eleven of them are prominent.
Bhoot's second wife Bhoota gave birth to formidable spooks and Ganas
like Vinayak etc. Angira's first wife Swadha gave birth to pitragans
while his second wife Sati accepted a Ved- Atharvanigra as her son.
Krishashva's wife Archi begot Dhumrakesh, while Dhishana- Krishashva's
second wife gave birth to four sons-Vedshira, Deval, Vayun and Manu.
Kashyap named Tarkshya had four wives- Vinata, Kadru, Patangi and
Yamini. Birds were born to Patangi, while Yamini gave birth to moths.
Vinata's son is Garuda who is the vehicle of Lord Vishnu. Arun was her
second son who became the charioteer of surya. Nagas (snakes) were born
Twenty-seven daughters of Daksh were married to Chandrama (the moon).
These are the twenty-seven Nakshatras like Kritika etc. But Chandrama
had particular love for Rohini, so he got tuberculosis and hence could
not produce a child. Names of Kashyap's thirteen wives are Aditi, Diti,
Danu, Kashtha, Ariha, Surasa, Illa, Muni, Krodh, Varsha, Tamra, Surabhi,
Sarama and Timi. These are the mothers of the whole world. All the gods,
demons, animals, giants etc. were born to them.
Shukdev says, "O Parikshit, Indra had become very haughty by the
luxuries he received as the king of the gods. One day, Devraj Indra was
sitting on his throne alongwith his queen Shachi. His court was full of
courtiers. Forty-nine Marudganas, eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, Aditya,
Ribhuganas Vishvedev, Shadhyaganas and both Ashwini Kumaras were present
in the court. Groups of Siddhas, Charaus, Gandhavas, Vidyadhars, elves,
Kinnars, Nagas etc. were singing in his praise and program of dance and
music was on. Acharya Brihaspati, the revered teacher of the gods
arrived there. But, despite having seen him, Indra did not show any
respect for Brihaspati. Indignant Brihaspati he at once deserted
Devaloka (the abode of the gods.)
When Acharya Brihaspati had gone, Indra realized his mistake. He at once
launched an extensive search for Guru Brihaspati. But no one could
locate Brihaspati. Feeling of insecurity in the absence of their Guru,
strongly agitated the gods. On the other hand, when the demons came to
know about Brihaspati's missing, they began to intimidate the gods. By
the permission of their teacher Shukracharya, the demons launched an
attack on the Devloka. Feeling sad by the pitiable state of the gods.
Indra went to the refuge of the Brahma who told the gods that they were
suffering because of their wrong policies and disregarding their learned
Guru. Brahma also told the gods that the demons had strengthened their
position because of their loyalty to their teacher Shukarcharya. Brahma
advised the gods to request Vishwarup, the son of the sage Tvashta, to
become their teacher. "He is a sound scholar of Vedas, great ascetic and
abstentious person." "Serving him," Brahma said, "You will be free from
all the crisis." Following Brahma's advice, the gods made Vishwarup
their teacher by request. Ascetic Vishwarup used his Vaishnavi Vidya to
annihilate the wealth and power of the demons and endowed Indra, with
those powers. Vishwarup also preached Indra about the infallible
Vaishnavi Vidya. Thus securing himself under the shield of this
knowledge Indra defeated all the demonic forces.
The king Parikshit asked, " O Lord, kindly relate to me the knowledge
(Vaishnavi Vidya) by the power of which Devraj Indra easily defeated the
Shukdev says, " Parikshit now I am telling you about the knowledge that
was once taught to Indra by Vishwrup. So listen to it carefully with
concentration. Whenever you feel yourself haunted with fears, you must
guard you body with this Narayana Kavach (shield). But before that it is
necessary to purify oneself by bath, meditation, libations, Pranayama
(control of breaths) and eight-lettered and twelve-lettered mantras of
God. The Hymnal Kavach (shield) must be then recited facing north while
reflecting on the divine appearances of God.
May the God, who rides Guruda and holds conch, wheel, mace and lotus,
protect me from all sides. May all the incarnations of God protect me
from all the lusts, affection and desires and in all the circumstances.
Thus may I be protected in water by Matsyavatar, on land by Vamanavatar,
in sky by Trivikrama, from Kamapida (sexual desire)by Sanakadit, from
Kupathya (diseases) by Dhanvantri, from ignorance from Vedvyas, from the
hells by Kachchhap avatar (tortoise incarnation), in the war by Narsinha
Avatar, in the way by Varah, on the top of the hills by Parashurama,
during exile by Lord Rama along with Lakshmanaji, from Maranmohan
Abhichar (death) by Lord Narayana, from ego by Nara, from obstacles by
Dattatreya, from the bondage of actions by Kapila, from disregarding the
God by Haygreev Mutri, from the crimes by Narad, from the imposters by
Buddha and from the faults of Kali Kaal may I be protected by Kalkidev.
May I be protected in the morning with mace by Keshav, with flute by
govind in the day, by Narayana Shakti before the noon and may I be
protected with Sudarshan chakra by Lord Vishnu in the noon time. May the
all knowing omnipotent Lord protect me in every circumstances. May the
name, appearance, vehicle, weapons, and all the services of Shri Hari
protect my mind, intellect, organs and life from all the calamities.
This Narayana Kavach (shield) saves one from all kind of calamities and
Vishrupa became the second Acharya (teacher) of the gods. He also saw
over indulgence of Indra in luscious objects. Vishwarup's mother
belonged to demon clan, so he had some inclination for the demons also.
Stealthily, he supplied parts of offerings of the oblations to the
demons. Very soon, Indra too came to learn that their teacher Vishvarup
was stealthy nurturing their enemies, the demons. So, indignantly Indra
severed the head of Vishvarup and to get rid of the sin of Brahmahatya
(killing of Brahmin) Indra distributed his sin among the land, water,
tree and the woman folk, and himself escaped the sin.
To take revenge of his son's murder, sage Tvashta organized a yagya with
the purpose of having a son who could kill Indra. The Yagya finished
successfully and as soon as the offering's ended, a formidable demon
appeared from the altar. The demon was named Vritrasur. Very soon,
Vritrasur defeated Indra and other gods and conquered all the three
worlds. Terrorized by his power and gallantry, all the gods ran into the
refuge of Lord Narayana. Pleased with their faith and prayers, Lord
Narayana advised them to please the great sage Dadhichi and ask for his
bones to build a Vajra (mace). From that Vajra Vritrasur could be
killed, God assured them.
Thus, all the gods, headed by Indra, reached the hermitage of sage
Dadhichi. There they very humbly and respectfully begged for his bones.
For the benefit of the world, sage Dadhichi gladly accepted to donate
his bones. With those bones, Vishvakarma built a massive Vajra which had
thousand edges. Thus by the power of the Lord and aquiring a divine
Vajra, Indra felt extremely strong. He at once launched an attack on the
demon's armies and drove them away from the battlefield.
Shri Shukdev says, "O Parikshit, from the gallantry of the gods the
demon army began to fled. Seeing his army running away in panic,
Vritrasur got infuriated. Charging ahead he stopped the gods' army from
advancing. He roared loudly. Many of the gods fainted from the
frightening thunder of the roar. Advancing Vritrasur routed the fallen
fighters. Even the earth began to shake because of his momentum. Devaraj
Indra could not bear it. He made a powerful blow on Vritrasur with his
mace. Vritrasur held his mace in the way and hit Airavat, Indra's
elephant, with it. Feeling the pain of the blow, Airavat moved back.
Then Vritrasur scolded Indra who had killed Vishvarupa the brother of
Vritasur, "O Indra, you have killed my brother Vishvarup without any
reason. Now, I will gore you with my powerful trident. Or you may behead
me by your vajra. Your vajra has the power of the sage Dadhichi and the
glory of Shri Hari.
But, Indra with you vajra, I will get rid of the bondage's of my body
and get salvation at the feet of Lord Vishnu. So,kill me with your
vajra." Thus, even in the battlefield, Vritrasur experienced direct
existence of God. He prayed God! " O Lord, may my mind reflect
constantly on your auspicious virtues, may my voice always recite your
virtues, may my body always be in your service. I don't want salvation
without serving you. My mind is writhing for your sight." Shukdev says,
" Thus, O Parikshit, Vritrasur had wished to leave his body in the
battlefield and get the God. He did not want to enjoy the luxuries of
the heaven defeating Indra."
Calling out these words, Vritrasar hit Indra with trident. But Indra cut
that hand of Vritrasur, which was holding the trident, by his vajra.
Losing his one hand Vritrasur was very outrageous and hit Indra's chin
and Airavat's forehead with his elbow. Because of the blow Indra dropped
his vajra, which fell near vritrasur's feet. Indra was now feeling too
ashamed to pick up the vajra. Vritrasur said, " O Indra, pick up the
vajra and kill your enemy. It is not the time to be gloomy. Indra showed
his respect to Vritrasur for his truthfulness and undeceitful words, and
said " O great demon you are really great. Your patience, determination
and devotion for God are really remarkable. You have surmounted the
illusion of God that confuses ordinary ones. You are a great man born in
demon family. Vritrasur again raised his wheel to hit, but Indra cut his
Now, having lost both his hands, Vritasur shook the earth with his heavy
steps and swallowed Indra along with his elephant. Everyone was
beginning to feel sorry for Indra but because of Narayana Kavach, Indra
remained unhurt even in the belly of Vritrasur. Thereafter, Indra
lacerated the demon's belly and came out. Then he cut Vritrasur's head
also. At that moment, soul of Vritrasur annihilated in the Supreme
Being. All the gods then greeted Indra for his victory.
Vritrasur was a religious king Chitraketu in his previous birth. Because
of the grace of Narad and Angira, he had received detachment and supreme
devotion and began to roam everywhere as a Siddhapurush (one who
achieves perfection). Once he was travelling on the aircraft gifted to
him by the gods, he saw the Ardhnarishwar (half male-half female)
appearance of Lord Shiva and said something in derogation. Indignant of
his discourtesy, Mata Parvati cursed Chitraketu to take birth in a demon
clan. Because of that curse, Chitraketu appeared as demon. But even in
demon incarnation, his devotion for the Lord's feet persisted as before.
contains 5 sub-sections.
The king Parikshit asked, " O fortunate one, God is said to have an
equal view for everybody. Why then does He favor the gods alone. Why
does He kill the demons only? Thus I have some doubts regarding God's
impartiality. Kindly remove them."
Shukdev says, " Parikshit, God's sketches are so vivid that even the
great sages can't comprehend them fully. Even then just by reciting
these surprising sketches of God, one receives the supreme position.
Accepting the virtues of this illusion, God acquires the opposing forms
of killer and killed occasionally. Virtues like Satya (chastity), Rajas
(royalty) and Tamas (darkness) are of nature, and not of God and hence
keep rising and falling with time. When Satguna (chastity) rises, God
adopts the gods and the Sages and causes a surge in their number. A rise
in Rajas (royal) virtues sees a surge in demons number. While a rise in
Tama (darkness) virtues leads to a surge in the population of the Yaksh
and Rakshasas (ogres and other super natural beings). But God is infact
impartial. Shukdev says, " O king once Devarshi Narad had related an
incident to your grandfather Yudhishthir. I'm narrating it to you right
now. Your doubts will be removed."
During the Rajsuya Yagya in Yudhishthir's court, Lord Krishna had
beheaded Shishupal with His wheel. Everyone, including Yudhishthir saw
Shishupal's soul annihilating in Lord Krishna. Surprised Yudhishthir had
asked Narad then, " O Devarshi, isn't it surprising that Shishupal who
was so jealous of Lord Krishna, got merged in Him? Such fortune is even
rare for the great Yogis (ascetics). How did then this rival of God get
such a supreme fortune?"
Narad said, "O king criticism, praise, serving or negligence are all
confined to the body only. When the soul is identified with the body,
people suffer from the impact of scolding and abusing. God has no ego
like ordinary beings, because He is the supreme soul and ultimate. If He
punishes someone it is for one's benefit and not for any anger or
jealousy. Therefore one must concentrate his mind in God no matter what
his feelings are- enmity, devotion, fear, affection.
In God's view these feelings don't make any difference." Narad said, "
Yudhishthir, in my opinion it is certain that the concentration achieved
through a feeling of enmity is rare to achiev otherwise, even with
devotion. This is the reason why uncountable number of sinners, who had
strong enmity for Lord Krishna, merged with Him. Your cousins- Shishupal
and Dantavkra were fortunate. They both were the gatekeepers of the
Lord. It was by curse of Brahmin, that they had to be relegated and take
birth as sinful demons."
Narad said, "O king, Brahma's Manasputras (sons begotten by thoughts)
Sanakadikumars were freely roaming all over the universe. Once they
reached Vaikunth (the abode of Lord Vishnu). But assuming them to be
ordinary boys the gatekeepers Jay-Vijay did not allow them in. Indignant
by the behaviour of the Gatekeepers, Sanakadi Kumars cursed them: "Fools
both of you don't deserve a presence near God. Both of you are endowed
with Rajaguna and Tamoguna (royal and dark virtues), so go and take
birth as the demons." When both the gatekeepers were falling from
Vaikunth, the kind Sanakadi Kumars said, " O.K. the effect of our curse
shall long for your three births only, thereafter you shall return to
By the curse of Brahmins, the gatekeepers of the God, Jay-Vijay took
their first birth as the demons- Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksh. Diti was
their mother. Hiranyaksh had stolen the earth and hidden it in Sutala
Loka, causing worries for Brahma. To remove the worries of Brahma, Lord
appeared as Varahavatar (the boar incarnation) and killed Hiranyaksh.
After the killing of Hiranyaksh his elder brother Hiraykashipu developed
enmity with Lord Vishnu. He avowed to other demons: "I will kill that
tricky Vishnu with my trident. Thus no one will be able to protect the
gods. All of you go out and bring havoc on them." Then Hiranykashipu
cremated his younger brother Hiranyaksh, condoled mother Aditi and wife
of his younger brother and himself went away to observe penance in order
to acquire strength and gallantry.
In the Valley of Mandarachal Mountain, Hiranykashipu stood on one toe
only and raised his hands towards sky. He continued to stand in the same
position. Ultimately fire began to emerge from his head. That fire
caused burning of all the three lokas (worlds.) Panicked by the fire the
gods reached to Brahma and prayed to put the fire off. Brahma at once
appeared before Hiranykashipu and said, "Son Hiranykashipu, your penance
is over now. Now seek a boon of your wish.'
Worshipping Brahma, Hiranykashipu said: 'May I not be killed by any
living being created by you, may I be killed neither in day nor in
night, neither by humans nor by animals, neither by weapons nor by arms,
neither on earth nor in sky. May no one match me in war. May I be an
undisputed emperor of all the living beings.' Pleased by his penance,
Brahma granted Hiranykashipu that rare boon.
By the virtue of Brahma's boon, Hiranykashipu grew extremely strong. Now
he had no fear of death, so his atrocities increased day by day. He
defeated all the gods, human beings, demons, demigods. Everyone accepted
his superiority. Now, Hiranykashipu began to reside in heaven itself. He
also made an all round declaration: 'all the people who worship or even
remember Vishnu, shall be put to death in my kingdom. Nobody else is God
except me.' Thus all the gods and demons began to worship Hiranykashipu
and presented him with gifts to please him. Gandharv, Siddhas, sages,
elves etc. all began to sing in his praise.
Narad says: 'O Yudhisthir, Hiranykashipu had such a brilliance that he
began to receive the offerings himself of the Yagyas performed by
Brahmins. On all the seven islands and upto the heaven, it was his
dominion. Now he was freely and lavishly enjoying all the luxuries.
Maddened by the luxuries, he even began to violate the rulings of the
scriptures. Perplexed by his harsh rule, all the gods went into the
refuge of the Almighty. Through a celestial voice, God comforted them:
'Don't be afraid O gods. I am aware of havoc caused by this demon. I
will destroy him, you wait for some more time. When he will begin to
torment his calm and devotee son Prahlad, I will definitely kill him.'
The demon king Hiranykashipu had four sons. Prahlad was youngest of
them, Prahlad was the greatest lover and devotee of God. Hiranykashipu
had declared such a pious son like Prahlad a criminal of the state. Thus
he tried his best to kill Prahlad.
Pious virtues of Prahlad: -
youngest son of the demon king Hiranykashipu, Prahlad was very virtuous.
He used to serve the sages with love. He treated all the beings equally
and did never differentiate them as separate from him. He had a respect
for the elders. Despite having knowledge, wealth, beauty, and nobility,
Prahlad didn't have any ego. He never lost patience even in most adverse
conditions. He also regarded the world as false and worthless. He had no
desire for anything, but had full restraint on his mind, organ, breath,
and body. Despite having born in demon family, he didn't have any
demonic virtues. Narad says: 'O Yudhisthir, as the virtues of the God
are endless, similarly the virtues of Prahlad had no limit. But a
natural and congenital love for Lord Shri Krishna was his greatest
Since his childhood, Prahlad had no inclination for childish plays.
Often he used to meditate silently. During his meditation, he used to
become quite motionless. More than often he felt as if God himself was
fondling him taking him in His lap. At times when he experienced an
absence of God, Prahlad would cry loudly, and at other times he would
laugh with joy seeing God before him. He also used to sing, shout and
even dance whenever he felt God nearby. Occasionally, Prahlad used to
mimic God, or feeling the soft touch of God, sit peacefully without
movement. Such was the trance like condition of Prahlad who had a
complete submersion in devotion for God.
Education of Prahlad:
Shukracharya was the teacher of the demons. Sukhracharya's two sons had
been appointed to teach the boys of the royal family. Staying at a place
closer to the royal palace, these two brothers taught the boys in
politics, economics etc. Prahlad too was sent to them for formal
education. There he used to listen to his teachers carefully and recite
what he had been taught. But Prahlad did not like the education, which
was based on falsehood. One day Hiranykashipu took Prahlad in his lap
and asked lovingly: 'My son, tell me, what you like the most.' Prahlad
said: 'Father, in my opinion, this world is nothing but full of sorrow.
Hence it is just for every being that they should give up this blind-pit
like world and go to the forests and take shelter in God, to be free of
miseries.' Alarmed by these words, Hiranykashipu warned the teachers,
the sons of Shukracharya, to look after Prahlad well, and to remove that
mean thoughts of devotion from his mind. He also cautioned the teachers
to guard Prahlad against any possible approach by a god, ascetic or
Guruputras (the teacher of Prahlad) tried their best and trained Prahlad
in policies of Sama, Dama, Dand, Bhed (conviction, temptation, fear of
punishment and partiality.) Then they trained him in Arth, Dharma and
Kama (economic matters, religion and carnal knowledge.) When they felt
satisfied with their efforts the Guruputras brought Prahald again to his
father, the demon king Miranykasipu.
Hiranykashipu kissed Prahlad's head and took him in his lap and asked,
"My son Prahlad, tell me in detail what you have learned from your
teacher during your stay with them." Prahlad said, "Father there are
nine kinds of devotion for Lord Vishnu. If one develops these nine kinds
of devotion with dedication, I understand, it would be the best
education." Infuriated by these words, Hiranykashipu threw Prahlad on
the floor and began to scoff at Guruputras.
Hearing his father scoffing at Guruputras, Prahlad said, "Father it was
not taught to me by them, it is my natural inclination." These words
further infuriated Hiranykashipu. Blinded by anger he ordered his
soldiers to kill Prahlad at once. Formidable demons hit Prahlad with
their arms. At that time Prahlad's conscience was focused in God. All
the blows of the demons yielded no result. Thereafter, Prahlad was
trampled by intoxicated elephants, bitten by poisonous snakes thrown
from the high cliffs into the sea and even in fire, buried under the
mountain but all in vain. None of the attempts could do any harm to the
Now, Hirankashipu began to feel worried because of his inability. Seeing
him worried the teacher assured him, "Be free of worries, O king. Keep
your son tied in Varunpash (the noose of varun) until our father
Shukracharya returns." Then they again took Prahlad to their hermitage
to teach him Grihasthdharm (duties of a married man). One day the
teachers were away for some urgent work. Prahlad called his classmates
and began to preach them about Lord Vishnu.
Preaching to Demon Boys by Prahlad:
Prahlad preached, "Friends, human incarnation is a rare thing in this
world. So taking shelter at the feet of God in this human incarnation is
a success for life. Brothers, God is the friend, beloved and the soul of
each and every being. Sensual pleasures are easily available in every
incarnation, so it is useless to make physical efforts to achieve
sensual pleasures. But this human body is a means to get God. So, as
long as the body is sound and healthy and it has strength one must work
for his benefits.
Half of the life of a man is simply wasted in sleeping. First twenty
years pass in playing, Young age passes in satisfying the ego while
during the twenty years of old age human body becomes crippled. So
friends don't waste your life running after the physical pleasures,
luxuries, wealth and all that leads to a certain fall. One needs not
work hard to please the God. He is soul of every living being. He is
self-achieved. Only do good to every living being, be kind to them
God is pleased with these actions only. Impressed by the beautiful
preaching of Prahlad about Bhagwad Dharma, the demon boys asked, "O
prince, you have never been away from the hermitage. How then did you
get such a knowledge at such a raw age? Prahlad told his fellow
disciples that when his father was away on Mandarachal for penance,
Indra had kidnapped his mother Kayadhu. He was taking her to Devloka
when Devarshi Narad stopped him in the way and asked why he was taking
such a helpless woman so forcibly. Indra had told then that he would
destroy her foetus who was going to be a demon and thereafter would let
Narad had said, "Devaraj there is a great devotee of God in this foetus,
you cannot kill him. But you need not fear him." Thus convinced by
Narad, Indra had released Kayadhu who then came to stay at Narad's
hermitage to pass her time. In the pious company of Narad who, with a
desire to benefit my mother and me, had preached us about Bhagwad
dharma, and absolute knowledge (Vishuddha Gyana)." It is that knowledge
which I have preached you just now. God is pleased with unconditional
love only. So you too develop devotion for God."
contains 5 sub-sections.
King Parikshit said to Shukdev, "Gurudev, I just heard that tale of
self-begotten Manu's lineage. Now kindly describe to me about the others
Manus. Also describe the plays of God's different incarnations which
occurred during different Manvantaras." Shukdev said, "Parikshit, during
Tamas Manvantara, Lord Narayana was born as Hari incarnation from
Harini, the wife of a sage. In that incarnation He saved an elephant
from the jaws of a crocodile. During the present Kalpa (period
comprising the sum of all the four Yugas), six Manvantaras have passed.
I have described the first one. Now, listen to the description of the
Swarochi Manu was the son of Agni. He had sons named Dyumana, Sushena
and Rochismana. During that Manvantara, Indra's post was occuppied by
Rochan. Scholars of Vedas like Vrajstambh etc. were among the Saptarishi
(seven great sages). Lord had taken incarnation as Vibhu, the son of a
sage Vedshira and his wife Tushita. Vibhu remained a loyal celibate
lifelong. Following His conduct, eighty-eight thousand more sages
observed celibacy life long.
Third Manu Uttam was the son of the king Priyvrata. He had sons named
Pawan, Sanjay, Yagyhotra, etc. In that Manvantar, seven sons of the sage
Vashisht were Saptarishi (the seven great sages). Indra's name was
Satyajit. Satya, Vedshrut and Bhadra were the main Ganas (courtiers) of
the God. God had appeared in the incarnation of Satyasen, the son of
Dharma and Sunrita. He was accompanied by Devganas named Satyvrata. Lord
had destroyed during that period the evil Yakshas, demon and
Tamas, the fourth Manu was the real brother of Uttam, the third Manu. He
had ten sons. Trishikh was Indra then, with Satyak, Hari, Veer etc. as
his main courtiers. Sage like Jyotirdham etc. were the Saptarishi.
During that Manvantara Lord had saved Gajendra from the jaws of the
Raiwas was the fifth Manu. He was also the real brother of Tamas, the
third Manu. He had many sons. Vibhu was the name of Indra. Sages like
Hiranyroma, Vedshira, Urdhubahm were among Saptarishi. God had appeared
in the incarnation of Vaikunth the son of the sage Shubh and his wife
Vikuntha. At the request of Goddess Laxmi, Lord Vaikunth created
Vaikunth dham, the best among all other lokas (worlds).
Chakshush was the sixth Manu. He had sons named Puru, Purush, Sadyumn
etc. Mantrradruma was Indra then, with Apya etc. as main courtiers.
Sages like Havishmana and Veeraka etc. were among the Saptarishi. During
that Manuantara, Lord had appeared in partial incarnation as Ajit, the
son of Vanraj and his wife Sambhunti. It was he who caused the churning
of the sea and made the God's drink nectar and supported Mandarachal
Mountain on his back in Kachchhap (tortoise) from during the churning.
Shri Shukdev says, " Parikshit in the present era, the seventh Manu,
Shardhdev is the son of Surya. He has ten sons- Ikshvaku, Nabhag,
Drisht, Sharyati, Narishyanta, Nabhag, Disht, Karush, Prishadhra and
Vasumana. Purandar is the name of Indra. He has Aditya, Vasu, Rudra,
Vishvadev, Marudgana, Ashwini, Kumar and Rishi as his main courtiers.
Kashyapa, Atri, Vashishtha, Vishvamitra, Gautam, Jamadagni and Bhardwaj
are the Saptarishi. During this Manvantara, God has arrived in Vamana
incarnation as the son of Kashyapa and his wife Aditi.
Savarni, the son of Surya and Chhaya would be the eighth Manu. The king
Surath, who had occurred in Swarachish Manvantara, had worshiped Goddess
Bhagwadi intensely, and thus received a boon of having an unbroken
empire on earth. In later course he will be the son of Surya and become
the eighth Manu also. He would have sons like Nirmaka, Virajask etc.
Vairochana Bali would be Indra, Amritprabha etc. as his main courtiers.
Galava, Diptimana, Parashurama, Ashwatthama, Kripacharya, Rishyshring
and Vyas- these great sages would be the Saptarishi during the eight
Manvantara. God would take incarnation as Sarvbhaum, the sons of
Devguhya and his wife Saraswati. God as Sarvbhaum would snatch the
kingdom of Swarga (heaven) from Purandara Indra and give it to the king
Shri Shukdev says, Varuna's son Dakshasavarni would be the ninth Manu.
He would have sons like Bhutaketu, Diptketu, Dyutimana etc. God would
take birth as the incarnation of Rishabh, the son of sage Ayushmana and
his wife Ambudhara. A person named Adbhut would be Indra and he would
have Para, Marichigarbh etc. as his main courtiers.
The Tenth Manvantara:
Upshloksa's son Brahma Savarni would be the tenth Manu. He would be very
pious in nature and have sons like Bhurishen etc. Havishmana, Sukriti,
Satya, Jay, Murti etc. would be Saptarishi. Shambhu would be Indra, with
Suvasana, Viruddh etc. as his main courtiers. God would appear in the
incarnation of Vishwasen as the son of Vishwasrij and his wife Vishuchi.
He would be a friend of Indra.
The Eleventh Manvantara:
The self-restraining Dharmasavarni would be the eleventh Manu. He would
have ten sons. Vaidhrita would be Indra with Vihangama, Kamagama, etc.
as main courtiers. Vedic sages like Arun etc. would be the Saptarishi.
God would appear as Dharmasetu, the sons of Aryak and Vaidhrita. In this
incarnation he would protect Triloki (all the three worlds).
Rudrasavarni would be the twelfth Manu. He would have sons named
Devavana, Updev and Devshreshth etc. Ritdhama would be Indra with Hari
etc. as his main courtiers. As the son of Satyasahay and his wife
Sunrita, the God would protect this Manvantara in the form of Swadham.
Devsavarni would be the thirteenth Manvantara. He would have sons named
Chitrasen, Vichitra etc. Divaspati would be Indra of the gods like
Sukarm, Sutram etc. Sages like Nirmoka, Tatvadarsh etc. would be the
Saptarishi. God would appear as Yogeshwar, the sons of Devhotra and his
wife Brihati. He would bestow the designation of Indra to Divaspati.
Indrasavarmi would be the fourteenth Manu. He would have sons like Uru,
Gambhir Buddhi etc. Shuchi would be Indra and have Pavitra Chakshush
etc. as his main courtiers. Agni, Bahu, Shuchi, Magadh etc. would be the
Saptarishi. God would appear in the incarnation of Brihadbhahu as the
son of Satrayana and his wife Vinata and cause the extension of
Shukdev says, "O Parikshit, these fourteen Manvantaras had continued in
past, are continuing in the present and they would continue in the
future also. It is by them, that a Kalp (a period of thousand
Chaturyugas) is completed. Calculation of time is also done through
Period of a Manvantra is slightly more then seventy one Chaturyugas (all
the four Yugas passing seventy-one times). A Chaturyugya (period of all
the four Yugas taken together) lasts for about 3 million years, while a
Kalpa lasts for about four thousand three hundred and twenty million
years. This is equal to a day of Brahma. Brahma's night is Mahapralaya
(the great deluge). When that night is over, Brahma again begins the
work of new creation exactly as per the previous Kalpa. Carrying out
this responsibility continuously for a century, Brahma goes back to
Bhagwad dham (the abode of Lord Vishnu).
His responsibilities are taken over by the next Brahma, who carries out
the work of creation, by the inspiration of Lord Narayana.
King Parikshit asked, "Munivar, God had salve Gajendra, in His Hari
incarnation. I wish to hear this tale."
Shukdev says, " O king, in Tamas Manvantara, God had appeared as Hari
and saved Gajendra from the jaws of Grah the crocodile. I am narrating
the tale to you listen to it carefully. Surrounded by Kshirsagar, there
was a high mountain named Trikuta. In the dense forest on the mountain
there lived Gajendra along with his harem of many cows. Gajendra was the
king of many big and strong elephants.
One day, Gajendra was passing his time playfully with his family in the
forests. It was very hot that day. So, perplexed by the sun, Gajendra
descended down the mountain with his family. At the foothills, there was
a big lake with deep, cold water and many lotuses blooming in it.
Gajendra entered the lake and drank water to his fill. Then he took bath
and started to play in the water. His activities in the water disturbed
the crocodile who lived there. With anger, the crocodile caught hold of
Gajendra's leg. Startled by the sudden attack, Gajendra put all his
might to get free but in vain. They only jostled against each other for
long. Every moment, crocodile's strengths seemed to be gaining. At last,
because of constant pulling into water, Gajendra's strength gave away.
Now, he was very desperate and thought that God has sent the crocodile
as a noose of Yama (death) for him. This thought horrified the elephant,
so he decided to take refuge at Shri Hari.
Prayer of God by Gajendra:
Gajendra had the memory of his previous birth fresh. So concentrating
his mind in the beautiful appearance of God, he began to pray, "I take
refuge at God, who is the base of the entire world, who is the ultimate
refuge for everyone. It is difficult to unfold the mysteries of His
plays. He takes many guises. Not even the sages and the gods know His
appearance and glory. May such a Lord protect me. O Lord, your powers
are unending. You are gracious to those who take refuge in you.
Illusioned by you, this humble creature does not recognize you. O Lord,
I am in your refuge."
Shukdev says, "Parikshit, Gajendra had prayed God impartially and
unspecifically so other gods did not come to save him. Being the soul of
everyone, Lord Shri Hari appeared Himself and saw Gajendra in deep
crisis. When Gajendra saw that Lord Shri Hari had arrived on his vehicle
Garuda from the sky, he picked a lotus from the lake and raised it in
his trunk and said, "O Jagadishwar (God of all world) Narayana, here is
a salutation for you." By then Lord jumped down from the Garuda and
dragged both of them out of water. Then He tore the jaws of the
crocodile by his wheel and saved Gajendra. All the gods, Brahma and Lord
Shivaa worshiped God and showered flowers on Him.
Previous Births of Gaja & Grah:
Killed by the God, the crocodile at once acquired a divine appearance.
He was a good-natured Gandharva (demigod) named Huhu, in his previous
birth. By the curse of Mahatma Deval, he had to take birth in crocodile
form. But now, by the grace of God he was salved and went to his
heavenly abode. Gajendra too received salvation by mere touch of God. He
too went to the heavenly abode of God.
In his previous birth, Gajendra was a king of Pandya dynasty. His name
was Indradyumna. He was a fervent devotee of God. So he had abandoned
his kingdom and taken to penance on Malay Mountain. One day he was
engrossed in his worship when sage Agastya arrived there with his
disciples. For not getting due welcome from the king, Agastya cursed
him, "You with a dull mind, who neglect his guests will be born as an
elephant." But even in elephant incarnation, and by the virtues of his
devotion, Gajendra retained the memory of his previous birth. God
appointed him as his courtier and departed to his divine abode riding on
King Parikshit asked, "O great sage, how did God cause churning of the
sea. What was the purpose behind it? Kindly tell me?" Shukdev says,
"Parikshit, in the sixth Chakshush Manvantara,the demons king Bali had
defeated the gods.
Indra had also lost his glory by insulting the garland which sage
Durvasa had presented to him as a God's gift. Indra had put the garland
in elephant's neck and then got it crushed under its feet. But now
having lost his kingdom and struck by misfortune, Indra and other gods
with Brahma prayed to the Lord . Melted by their prayers, God appeared
before them. All the gods laid before Him and worshiped. The omnipotent
God inspired the gods to churn the sea.
Lord asked the gods to churn the sea and produce nectar. He also advised
them to take the help of demons in that great task. Drinking the nectar
one becomes immortal. God asked the gods to put various medicinal plants
and vegetations in Kshirsagar (sea of milk) and churn it by Mandarachal
Mountain moving it with the help of Vasuki the naga. God promised them
of all help from His part.
Thereafter, Indra and other gods went unarmed to the demon king Bali and
told him of their intention. Demons too liked the idea. With a friendly
attitude then the gods and the demons together uprooted the mount
Mandarachal. But they could not carry it to the sea. Lord appeared on
Garuda and carried the mountain to the sea.
The gods and demons had promised Vasuki, the Naga his due share in the
nectar. So Vasuki allowed them to use him as a rope, wound around
Mandarachal as a means to move it. In the incarnation of Ajit, Lord told
the gods to hold the head of Vasuki. But the demons suspecting some
mischief said they would hold the head and asked the gods to hold the
Naga from the tail for churning. Thus the gods held the tail while the
demons took hold of Vasuki's head.
Thus they began the churning. But as soon as the churning began the
mountain started sinking for not having a firm base. Lord then took
Kachchhap (tortoise) incarnation and supported Mandarachal on His back.
On the mountain also Lord appeared in Sahastrabahu form, and held it.
The gods and the demons churned the sea for long but nothing emerged.
So, Lord Ajit himself began to churn the sea. First of all, it was
Halahal, the deadly poison to emerg. The intensity of the poison began
to torment every being. To save their subjects from it, Prajapatis
prayed Lord Lord Shiva. The life-giver, Lord Bholenath (an epithet of
Lord Shiva) drank all the poison. By the impact of the poison, Lord Lord
Shiva's throat turned blue in color. Hence Lord Shiva got the name
Emergence of Gems & Nectar:
After Lord Shiva drank the poison, the gods and the demons began to
churn the sea again with greater enthusiasm. Now, Kamadhenu, the divine
cow emerged. She was useful for Yagya etc. so the sages received it.
Then a horse named Uchchaishrava, emerged and taken up by Bali the king
of demons. The horse was followed by Airavat the elephant. Indra took
it. The divine gem, Kaustubh Mani, emerged then. Lord Ajit took it on
His chest. Then emerged the Kalpvriksha, the divine tree that reached
the heavens. Then the elves emerged. They all accepted to serve Indra in
Goddess Lakshmi emerged after the elves. All the azimuths were lighted
because of her brilliance. Everyone was attracted towards her beauty,
generosity, youthfulness, appearance and glory. Devaraj Indra presented
a throne for her to sit. Rivers brought water for her ceremonial bath.
The earth presented medicinal bath. Cows gave Panchganyas and Vasant
(spring) presented many kinds of fruits and flowers. The sages welcomed
Lakshmi with Rigsuktas (hymns of Rigveda). Gandharvas sang in her
praise. Then taking the lotus in her hand, Lakshmi took a seat on the
throne. Sea donned her with a beautiful silk saree. Varun presented a
garland. Saraswati gifted her with a necklace of pearls. Brahma
presented lotus while Nagas presented two earrings.
After the singing by Brahmins in her praise, Lakshmi took lotus garland
in her hand and put it around Lord Vishnu's neck in a gesture of
accepting Him as her husband. Jagatpita, Lord Vishnu too gave Lakshmi a
supreme position in His heart. Lakshmi was followed by Varuni who was
taken up by the demons.
The gods and the demons began to churn the sea again. At last lord
Dhanvantari emerged with an urn of nectar. It was Dhanvantari who
developed Ayurved, the ancient Indian system of medicine. As soon as the
demons saw the urn, they snatched it and ran away. A row then began
among the demons over the drinking of nectar. Consoling the gods, Lord
appeared among the demons in the guise of an extremely pretty woman,
Distribution of Nectar by Lord as Mohini:
The demons who were fighting over the potions of nectar forgot
everything when they saw Mohini, who was actually a guise of Lord
Vishnu. Lured by her prettiness the demons came to Mohini and requested
her to solve the dispute for them. Illusioned by God, the demons even
gave the nectar to Mohini and sat peacefully showing their confidence in
her. In Mohini's guise, Lord thought that the demons were congenitally
cruel and giving nectar to them would be akin to feeding sakes with
milk. Their evils would increase.
So, Mohini offered the nectar to the gods only while offered wine to the
demons. When the nectar was being distributed, a demon named Rahu took
the guise of a god and sitting among them drank the nectar. Suurya and
Chandra spotted him and revealed his identity to God, who at once
beheaded him. But, by then Rahu had drunk enough nectar.
Shukdev says, "Parikshit by the virtues of the ambrosia, the gods had
become invincible. They began to take revenge and the demon king Bali
met his death in the battle. When Brahma saw the imminent extermination
of the demons, he sent Devarshi Narad in the battlefield to make the
gods abstain from the war. The survivng demons carried the dead Bali
towards Astachal. There, Shukracharya, the teacher of the demons,
resurrected all the demons with his Sanjivani Vidya (knowledge that
resurrects the dead). Thus obligated the demon-king Bali dedicated all
his wealth to Shukracharya and began to serve him and other Brahmins of
By the service of the Demons Brahmin of Bhrigu clan got very much
pleased. King Bali had a long cherished desire of conquering the heaven.
So the Brahmins organized a Vishvjit Yagya for Bali. At the completion
of Yagya, first emerged a beautiful chariot, all covered with gold. Then
green coloured horses, inexhaustible quiver and a divine shield emerged
in sequence from the altar. Bali's grandfather Prahlad presented him a
garland while Shukracharya gave a conch. Thus receiving all the
weaponaries, king Bali took oath and circumambulated Brahmins.
Thereafter, greeting them he boarded the chariot followed by powerful
demons and their huge armies. Thus fully prepared Bali launched a
massive attack on the heaven.
When Indra saw that Bali had come with full preparation and that his
armies had surrounded Amaravati, he went to his teacher Brihaspati and
asked about the reason for the demons' sudden uprising. Devguru said,
"Indra, blessing of Bhrigu Brahmins is the main reason of the demons
uprising. You can't face the demon armies yet, because Kaal himself is
in their favor. So you all abandon the heaven and hide somewhere." After
the abdication of the heaven by the gods Bali captured it. Then he
conquered all the three worlds. With advice of his priests, Bali
organized one hundred Ashvmegh Yagyas. Thus by the grace of Shukracharya
and other Brahmins of Bhrigu clan, king Bali got the domain of the
heaven and began to rule it generously.
Preaching of Payovrata to Aditi by
Kashyap: Shri Shukdev says, "O Parikshit, Aditi( mother of
the gods) felt very sorry for the gods and capture of the heaven by the
demons. When Sage Kashyap visited Aditi's hermitage, he saw his wife in
desperate mood. On enquiring about the reason, Aditi said, " Lord by
your grace my married life is running well. But I am sorry for the
pitiable condition of my sons, the gods. Strong demons have snatched
their abode. So kindly tell me the remedy." At her request Kashyap
preached Aditi about a worship named "Payovrat" to seek the blessing
This worship, Payovrat is carried out during the waxing phase of the
month Phalgun (that correspond to February-March months in Gregorian
calendar) for twelve days continuously. One must drink milk only during
the worship. One-day before starting the Vrat, that is on the day of
Amavasya (moonless night) one must smear his body with the earth dug out
by the boars and take bath in the river. Then, one must worship God with
Shodushopchar (sixteen treatments) while following the rules prescribed
for daily routine. He must recite Dwadashakshari Mantra (hymn containing
twelve letters), perform Havan with Kheer (rice cooked in milk) and
distribute Naivadya (remaining food from Havan) among the devotees.
Reciting the twelve-lettered hymn, one must tell the rosary-string at
least once about the wish. Thus, the same worship must be performed for
twelve days continuously. If one feeds a Brahmin daily during the Vrat,
he can be sure of God's grace.
Mother of the gods, Aditi performed Payovrat as per the advice of her
husband Kashyap. Pleased by her Vrat, the Lord appeared before her in
Chaturbhuj (four-armed) form. Mother Aditi laid flat on the ground to
greet the God. She prayed, "O Lord you are the God of Yagya, and Yagya
yourself. Those, who take refuge at your feet are saved when you are
pleased, nothing remains ungettable." Lord said, " O mother of the gods,
I know about your desire. You have worshipped me for your sons, But it
is difficult yet to defeat the demons. But because of your worship, I
will protect your sons by becoming your child."
Vaman incarnation of God:
Lord arrived in Aditi's womb, Brahma prayed to Him. By Brahma's prayers,
the unborn God appeared before Aditi. Shukdev says, " O Parikshit, on
the twelfth day of the waxing phase of Bhadrapada month (corresponding
to September) Lord tok birth in Abhijit Muhurta. Everywhere, everybody
celebrated the arrival of God with joy. The gods showered flowers on
Him. The God had arrived in Vaman (dwarf) form. His continence
appearance caused tremendous joy for the sages. During Upnayan
consecration of Lord, the ruling deity of the Gayatri mantra, Savitri
(an epithet for Surya) preached Him the hymn. Guru gave him Yagyopavit,
Kashyap gave neck-kerchief, the earth gave black buck skin, Chandra gave
scepter, Mother gave loin cloth, the sky gave umbrella, Brahma gave
Kamandalu (coconut shell bowl) Saptrishi gave kush (sacred grass) while
Goddess Saraswati presented God with a string of Rosaries. Yakshraj
(king of Yakshas) Kuber gave him the alms bowl and mother Annapurnna
gave him alms. Thus everyone payed due respect to God in Vaman (dwarf)
incarnation who was radiating with divine glory.
Lord was intimated that the king Bali was performing many Ashvamegha
Yagyas with Bhrigu Brahmans. He at once left for the Yagya site, at a
place named Bhrigu Kachch on the banks of the river Narmada. As soon as
Lord Vaman reached the site, all the sages, hosts and others present
there became dull before the radiance of God. They felt as if Surya
himself had arisen there. Everyone stood up to welcome God. Host Bali
offered Him the best seat and washed His feet with affection. Then Bali
requested God for his service.
Demanding three steps of Land by Vaman:
King Bali requested, "O Brahmin , now tell me how I can serve you. You
are the tangible representation of the penance of Brahmarishis. By your
arrival, all my ancestors are salved, my clan is blessed, my Yagya has
succeeded. Ask me whatever you wish. I am ready to give you your desired
Hearing the pious talk of the king Bali, Lord Vaman blessed him and
said, "O king, no one have been impatient and frugal in your clan.
Reputation of your grandfather Prahlad is still alive. You great
grandfather Hiranykashipu had chased the illusionary Vishnu who had hid
in your great grandfather's heart itself. When the infuriated
Hiranykashipu could not find Vishnu anywhere in all the three worlds, he
presumed that Vishnu had died because of his fear alone."
"O king" continued Lord Vaman, " You are excellent among the religious
people. O demon king, you can fulfill any great desire. But I demand
only as much land as could be covered in three steps of mine. I need
nothing else." King Bali said, " O Batu, (dwarf Brahmin) you talk like
aged persons but your mind is childish. I am the ruler of all the three
worlds, and you are asking for three steps of land only, you can still
ask for anything else. Lord Vaman replied," O king, greedy ones are not
sated even if they get whole of the earth. But I don't want more than my
requirement." King Bali agreed to donate Vaman the Land as per his
demands and picked up the water pot to make resolution.
When Guru Shukracharya, saw that Bali had agreed to donate land, he
tried to persuade him, "O Bali, this Vaman is none other than
indestructible Lord Vishnu. He has taken incarnation of Vaman as a son
of Aditi, Kashyap's wife, in the interest of the gods. Unknowingly you
have made a promise to fulfil His desire. But He will snatch everything
from you and hand it over to Indra. This illusionary Batu will measure
whole of your empire in all the three worlds with his two steps, so you
will not be able to keep your promise also. Hence, show your inability
to make donation as per His demand, send Him back."
Measuring of Earth's heaven by Vaman:
Shukdev says, "Parikshit with, politeness king Bali asserted
to his teacher, " Gurudev, your words are true. But I am the grandson of
great Prahlad. Now I cannot reverse my promise. No religion is greater
than truth. I'm not afraid of any calamity except of deceiving a
Brahmin." When, Shukracharya saw that his disciple Bali was determined
to violate his dictate, he cursed, " O king, soon you will be devoid of
the wealth you have been enjoying."
But despite having been cursed by his teacher, Bali stayed firm to his
promise. Worshipping Vaman formally, he took some water on his palm and
made the promise to donate land. As soon as Bali made the promise, Lord
Vaman assumed a gigantic appearance and measured Bali's entire empire in
his steps. In first He measured the whole of the earth. In the next He
measured the heaven. The second step itself reached Satyaloka, where
Brahma had once washed Lord's feet and kept the water, in a Kamandalu (a
bowl of coconut shell) that came on earth later as the river Ganges. Now
there was no room for God to put His third step. Lord ridiculed Bali for
not keeping his promise fully, "Your everything is mine now, but your
promise is still incomplete.
Shukdev says Lord ridiculed Bali but he remained unmoved with patience.
He said: 'O Lord, I keep my promise fully, you put your third step on my
head. I don't want a blemish on my reputation.' Lord said: 'I snatch all
the wealth from people who are bestowed with my grace. They then become
an inseparable devotee of me, free from every blemish.' Thus Lord Vishnu
gave Bali the empire of Sutal Loka (hades) that was even richer than the
heaven and said: 'I will protect you there from all the obstacles.' Your
hundredth Ashvamudh Yagya shall be completed. In due course of time you
shall be the king of the heaven.' This way, without fighting a battle,
Lord took the empire of heaven from the demons and gave it to His
King Parikshit asked: 'O Gurudev, Lord is omnipotent. Why did He then
take Matsyavatar like an ordinary being bound by karma? I want to hear
the tale of God's Matsyavatar.' Shukdev said: 'O Parikshit, God is one.
Still for the preservation of His devotees, He takes various
incarnations. He also shows His plays by being present in all the
creatures. But He remains unaffected by the merits and demerits of those
'Parikshit, at the end of last Kalp, Brahma had fallen asleep, causing a
Pralaya. All the worlds had been inundated then. When Brahma had fallen
asleep, Vedas fell out from his open mouth. A demon Hayagreeev abducted
the Vedas by his illusionary powers. Omnipotent God had known the action
of the demon. So he had to take Matsyavatar (fish-incarnation).'
'There was a King named Satyavrat during that time. He was very generous
and great devotee of God. Sustaining himself on water only, the King was
observing severe penance. The same King Satyavrat has come to be known
as Shraddhdev, the son of Surya (Vaivashvat) in the present Kalp. One
day, Satyavrat was taking a bath in the river, when a small fish came in
his folded palms. The fish requested the King to save her. So the King
put the fish in Kamandalu (coconut shell bowl). But in no time the fish
grew too big to be accommodated in the Kamandalu. So the King
transferred the fish into another, bigger pot, but again it grew too big
to be accommodated in the pot. The sequence continued till the fish
outgrew even the big lake. So the King decided to put the fish in the
The fish, which was actually an incarnation of God, requested the King
not to put it in a sea inhabited by fierce monsters. King Satyavrat grew
suspicious. So with folded hands, the King requested the fish to appear
in its real form. Instantaneously, Lord Narayana appeared and told the
King: 'Exactly on the seventh day from now, Pralaya will inundate all
the three lokas. But I will send a boat for you. You will board the boat
and tether it to my horns with Vasuki, the Naga.' Having received the
information of deluge, the King began to wait for its arrival while
reflecting on God's virtues. On the seventh day, dense clouds gathered
in the sky and began to rain torrentially. Soon whole of the earth was
inundated. The King Satyavrat found the boat sent by Lord. Boarding the
boat, Satyavrat began to pray to God. At his prayers, Lord preached him
the knowledge of metaphysical. Thereafter, the God killed the demon
Hayagreev and recovered the Vedas. When Brahma awoke from his sleep,
Lord handed the Vedas to him.'
contains 3 sub-sections.
King Parikshit requested Shukdev to describe about the dynasty of his
contemporary Manu, Shraddhdev. Shukdev said: 'Parikshit, I describe
about the dynasty of Manu in short because if I go in detail, it will
not be completed in hundreds of years.' Manu Shraddhdev was the son of
Surya and Sandhya. Name of Manu's wife was Shraddha. They did not have
any child initially, so they organised a Putrayeshti Yagya under the
auspices of their family teacher Vashishth. But right amidst the
proceedings, the queen Shraddha prayed the Brahmins to bless her for a
female child. The Brahmins made offerings as per her wish. Consequently
a girl, instead of a boy, was born to them. She was named Ila. But the
King requested Vashishth to transform her into a boy. Vashishth did the
same, and the boy thus obtained was named as Sudyumn.
TALE OF SUDYUMN :- One day
Sudyumn had gone on a hunting excursion. Riding the horse with his
ministers, Sudyumn reached a forest at the foothills of Meru Mountain.
The forest was the nuptial abode of Lord Shiva and Mata Parvati. As soon
as Sudyumn and his companions entered the forests, they all, even
horses, got converted into females. Relating its reason Sukhdev said:
'Once, Mata Parvati was sitting naked in the lap of Lord Shiva when
suddenly some great sages arrived there to have a sight of Lord. Mata
Parvati sank with shyness and ran to don some cloth. When the sages saw
that Gauri-Lord Shiva were enjoying intimacy, they moved at once to the
hermitage of Nar-Narayana. Right at that moment, in order to please Mata
Parvati, Lord Shiv said: 'Except me, any man who enters here, shall
become a women.' It was because of these words of Lord Lord Shiva, that
Sudyumn and his companions were transformed into females. While Sudyumn
was roaming as woman, Budh, the son of Chandra, fell in love with her
and they agreed to get married. From their marriage, a son, Pururawa was
born, who founded the town named Pratishthanpur.
Sudyumn, in female form, prayed Lord Shiva to free him from woman
incarnation. Lord Shiva blessed Sudyumn that he would be a man for a
month and a woman for another. Thus this cycle would continue life long.
Thereafter Sudyumn returned to the kingdom and began to rule it
religiously. He got three sons in due course- Utkal, Gaya and Vimal. In
the twilight of his life, Sudyumn gave his kingdom to Pururava and he
TALE OF PARISHADHRU :- After
the exile of Sudyumn, Manu took to penance with a desire to have son.
Pleased by his penance Shri Hari blessed him to have ten sons.
Parishadhru was the eldest of them. He was appointed in the service of
the cows. One night in darkness, a tiger broke into the cowshed causing
a panic among the cows. Hearing the panicky noise of the cows,
Prishadhru ran to the cowshed. There he saw that the tiger had caught a
cow, and she was bellowing in pain and fear. Prishadhru at once ran to
help and with a powerful blow of the sword he beheaded the tiger. It was
pitch dark in the cattleshed, so Prishadhru could not see whom he had
killed. In the morning he realized that he had killed the cow and not
the tiger. He felt extremely sorry. Their family teacher cursed him to
lead a life of a shudra. Prishadhru, thereafter passed his life as a
celibate and mingled with the supreme Soul at last.
TALE OF SHARYATI :- Sharyati was the
second son of Vaivasvat Manu. He was a great scholar of Vedas. He had an
extremely beautiful daughter named Sukanya. One day, king Sharyati was
in the forests with his family. Thus roaming, they reached the hermitage
of the sage Chyavan. Chyavan was immersed in deep meditation. His whole
body was covered with termite's nests; only eyes were shining like
fireflies. Out of curiosity, the princess Sukanya pricked those shining
eyes of the sage with thorns. All the king's army fell in crises by this
incidence. When the king learned about the princess' crime, he begged
pardon of the sage Chyavan and gave the princess in his service and
himself returned to his palace.
In the forest Sukanya served Chyavan with dedication. Chyavan received
youth and vigor by the grace of Ashwini Kumar. Pleased by Shukanya's
dedication, sage Chyavan provided her with all queenly luxuries. After
many days, king Sharyati again visited the forests. There he saw Sukanya
talking to a beautiful young prince. At first Sharyati scolded at
Sukanya for violating the norms of a chast woman. But Sukanya told him
about the transformation of the sage Chyavan by the grace of Ashwini
Kumar. Learning the reality the king felt overjoyed to see his
son-in-law Chyavan in youthful state.
TALE OF AMBRISH :- Shukdev says, "
Parikshit, Sharyati was the king Nabhag. His son was Naabhaag. He was a
great devotee of his parents. As a result of his service for his
parents, Naabhaag was very much comfortable. He had a son Ambarish who
was a great devotee of Vishnu. Even the great wealth on earth had no
value for Ambarish.The king Ambarish served the God with his own hands
and remained immersed in His love. Once, Ambarish followed Nirjala
Ekadashi Vrat (waterless fast observed on the eleventh day of each phase
of lunar month) for a year. During one such fast, on the twelfth day,
king Ambarish was about to break his fast, when sage Durvasa arrived
there along with his ten thousands disciples. Welcoming him, the king
requested Durvasa to accept food. But the sage turned down the request
saying that it was prayer time for him, so he would first go to take
bath, then worship and take alms (food) ultimately. But the sage Durvasa
did not return for long. Thus by the dictate of Brahmins, king Ambarish
broke his fast with basil leaves and water.
Just then sage Durvasa returned and saw Ambarish breaking his fast. So
taking it as an insult, the infuriated Durvasa invoked Kritya in order
to kill the king. King Ambarish stood unmoved, and begged pardon with
folded hands. Lord Narayana saw His devotee in trouble and inspired His
Sudarshan Chakra (wheel) to save the king.
Sudarshan Chakra first incinerated Kritya, then aimed at sage Durvasa.
When Durvasa saw Sudarshan aimed at him, he ran for his life. First he
reached Brahma. But Brahma told him that he was not able to protect the
person who had done harm to a devotee of God. Then Durvasa reached to
Rudra. Lord Shiva also said, " Durvasa, by the wish of Lord, Rudras are
engaged in the service of the universe. This Chakra is unstoppable by
me. So you go to His refuge, only He can save you."
From Lord Shiva's abode Durvasa reached Vaikunthdham, the supreme abode
of Lord Vishnu. He was feeling intense heat of the wheel. So, shivering
with fear, he felt at the Lord's feet and said, "O endless, you are the
only venerable of all the saints. O Lord, I have committed a great crime
against your devotee. O Lord please save me". Seeing sage Durvasa in his
refuge, Lord Vishnu said, " Durvasa. I am bound to my devotee. I am not
independent. As the devotees abdicate their everything to receive me.
Similarly I am also devoted to my devotee. So I too can't protect you.
Go to the person who you wanted to hurt, and pray him. Only he can save
you from the Chakra.
Thus, by the dictate of God, aggrieved Durvasa returned to the king
Ambarish and fell at his feet. Ashamed of the sage act, king Ambarish
prayed God, "O Lord if I had done any pious deed, may it be enough to
calm you and may the heat that torments this Brahmarishi quenched." Thus
by the prayers of king Ambarish, Sudarshan was quietened and returned to
its position on Lords finger and sage Durvasa recovered from his
sufferings. He blessed the king and left.
Shukdev says, " Once Shraddhdev Manu sneezed violently. From his
nostrils, a son was born. He was named Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku had one
hundred sons. Vikukshi, Nimi and Dandak were the eldest three of them.
Vikukshi :- Once, Ikshvaku sent his eldest son Vikukshi to
collect tubers for the offerings to be made to their ancestors. Vikukshi
collected sacred Shash tubers. But, he himself was feeling tired and
hungry, so he ate one of them. He gave the remaining tubers to his
father. King Ikshvaku gave those tubers to Guru Vashishth for offering
to the ancestors. Vashishth informed the king that the tubers were
defiled and not fit for offerings. Thus told by Vashishth, Ikshvaku
learned the deed of his son and expelled him out of his kingdom in
anger. Vikukshi passed his life in exile and returned home only after
the death of his father. He became famous as Shashad.
Puranjay :- Puranjay was the son of Vikukshi. He is also famous
as 'Indravah' and 'Kakutsth.' A fierce battle had taken place between
the gods and the demons.In the battle, the gods had sought the help from
Puranjay. But Puranjay stipulated that he would fight only when Indra
agreed to become his vehicle. From God's inspiration, Indra took the
guise of a big and heavy ox and bore Puranjay on his back. When Puranjay
rode on the ox and trained his divine bow and arrows, all the gods
prayed to him. Since, Puranjay had taken seat near ox's hump, he came to
be known as Kakutsth. Puranjay fought a fierce battle with the demons.
Thus in no time Puranjay defeated the demons and captured their towns,
wealth, luxuries and every other thing and gave them to Indra. Since,
Indra had acted as his vehicle, hence Puranjay is also known as
In the lineage of Puranjay, had occurred a king named Yuvnashva. He had
no son, so in desperation he gave up his kingdom and, accompanied by his
queens, came to stay in the forest. There he organized a grand Yagya,
Indrayag with a desire of a son and in the auspices of the great sages.
The Yagya lasted day and night. But during the Yagya, Yuvnashva felt
extremely thirsty and without giving a thought he drank some of the
water from urn that had been sanctified with mantras. Since, the water
was meant to produce a child, Yuvnashva begot a child with auspicious
signs. Immediately after birth the child began to cry for milk. So to
quiten him Indra put his index finger in the child's mouth. Since then,
the child got the name Mandhata. Mandhata became a great emperor. He was
also known as Trasdasyu because big robbers like Ravan had an inherent
fear of him. Mandhata had deep self-learnings, still he organized many
grand Yagyas. Mandhata had three sons- Purykuts, Ambarish (second) and
Muchkund. He had fifty daughters also. All of them were married to the
Trishanku :- In this lineage of Mandhata there occurred a king
named Satyvrat. He was renamed as Trishanku. Though by the curse of his
father and the teacher, he had become a Chandal (an untouchable person)
yet by the power of his penance, sage Vishvmitra helped him reach heaven
with the body. But the jealous gods pushed down poor Satyvrat from the
heaven. He was falling headlong while Maharishi Vishumitra supported and
fixed him in mid sky, hence he got the name Trishanku.
He was the son of Trishanku. For him, two great sages Vishvmitra and
Vashishth had cursed each other and acquired bird forms and kept on
fighting for many years. Harishchandra had no son. With a desire to have
a son, Harishchandra worshiped Varundev. By the grace of Varun, he got a
son named Rohit. Caught in the love for his son, Harishchandra forgot to
organize Yagya to pay his thanks to Varun. Rohit too had fled to the
forest to save his life when he learned that his father wished to
sacrifice him. He stayed there for long. Back there in the kingdom
Harishchandra acquired a deadly disease of Dropsy as a result of
Varuna's anger. Having learnt about his father's illness, Rohit tried
five times to return to the kingdom, but every time Indra forebode him.
Thus he stayed in the forest for six years. But in the seventh year he
bought the middle son of Ajigart and took him to the kingdom to be used
as a votive animal. There he handed the boy over to his father.
Thereafter, king Harishchandra organized a grand Yagya and pleased
Varun. Pleased by their unshakable faith in truthfulness sage
Vishvamitra blessed Harishchandra and his wife and preached them about
In the lineage of Rohit later on, had occurred a King Bahuk.
Unfortunately, he met an untimely death. One of his widowed wife got
ready to be immolated with her husband's pyre. She was pregnant then, so
the sage Aurv prevented her from getting Sati. When her fellow queens
learnt about her pregnancy, they fed her with poisoned food. But the
poison proved ineffective on the unborn baby. The baby was born in due
course with poison, so he came to be known as Sagar. Sagar had a great
reputation as the King. He had sixty thousand sons. He had also resolved
to organize one hundred Ashvmamegh Yagyas. His ninety-nine Yagyas
completed without hassles, but during the hundredth Yagya, Indra stole
the horse and tethered it in the hermitage of the sage Kapil. Sagar's
sixty thousand sons set out in search of the horse, but could not find
it anywhere on earth.
At last, they reached the hermitage of the sage Kapil. Before that, with
their enormous power, they had dug out huge pits, which filled with
water and formed the sea. The sea derived its Hindi Synonym Saagar from
Sagar. When those sixty thousand princes saw that the Yagya horse was
Tethered in Kapil's hermitage, they began to abuse the sage. Disturbed
by the noise, the sage Kapil opened his eyes, and instantaneously all
the sixty thousand princes got incinerated. It was Anshumana, the
grandson of Sagar, who pacified sage Kapil with his politeness and
brought back the horse. He also discovered the ashes of his ancestors.
Sage Kapil told Anshumana that the salvation of his ancestors would be
possible only if touched by Gangaji, (the sacred Ganges). Since then,
all the kings in Sagar's lineage observed severe penance to bring the
Ganges on earth for the salvation of their ancestors.
First of all, king Anshumana observed hard penance. But even after many
years of penance he could not succeed in his efforts. His son Dileep
also observed sever penance, but his efforts too, could not succeed.
Bhagirath was the son of Dileep. After Dileep, Bhagirath started severe
penance. After many years of penance, Bhagirath succeeded in pleasing
the Ganges. She appeared before him and asked him to seek a boon.
Bhagiratha requested the Ganges to arrive on earth. The Ganges accepted
his wish, but put a question as to who would support her when she fell
on earth from the heaven. Bhagiratha then began his penance again to
please Lord Shiva so that He could support the Ganges on earth. Lord
Shiva accepted Bhagirath's prays and supported the Ganges on his head.
Thereafter He moved on the path shown by Bhagirath with sacred Ganges
following. Thus, the sacred Ganges reached at the place where ashes of
Bhagirath's ancestors were lying. The holy waters of the Ganges washed
the ashes to the confluence at Ganga Sagar. By the mere touch of Ganges'
holy water, Bhagirath ancestors received salvation.
After Bhagirath many great kings like Michsah, Khatvang, Dhirghbahu,
Raghu etc. occurred in the Ikshvaku dynasty. Raghu's son was Aja and his
son was Dashrath. It was in the home of King Dashrath, and by the prayer
of the gods, that Lord Shri Hari took birth as four sons of Dashrath.
Description of Lord Rama's Plays :- Shukdev says, " Parikshit, to
keep the words of his father, Lord Rama abdicated the entire kingdom and
took exile in the forest. Staying in the forest Lord Rama protected many
sages, and helped them complete their religious rituals successfully. He
slayed many formidable demons there. But, for cutting the nose and ears
of Shupanakha, the sister of demon king Ravan, He had to bear the
separation of his wife sita.
Rama had won Sita as his wife in a swayamvar in Janakpur. In his
teenage, sage Vishmatria had taken Rama and Laxmana with him to his
hermitage to guard his religious proceedings against the demons. Rama
and Laxmana had killed many demons then. It was during this period that
the swayamvar was organized in Janakpur. Lakshmi, the better half of
Lord Vishnu, had herself appeared as Sita in Janakpur. Sage Vishvamitra
himself taken Rama and Laxmana to the swayamvar. Many more brave and
strong kings and princes had gathered there. But no one could train the
Bow of Lord Shiva as per the condition of the swyamvar. It was only
Rama, who not only lifted the bow but trained it also. In the process of
training, the bow broke with a loud noise. Thus Lord Rama won Sita as
But during the exile the demon king Ravan deceitfully abducted Sita to
avenge the insult of his sister Shurpanakha. Thereafter, the
circumstances favored Lord Rama and He soon found out the whereabouts of
Sita. With a huge army of monkeys and bears, Lord Rama reached the
seashore there He prayed to the sea to make way for Him. But the sea did
not pay heed to his prayers, so angrily He got ready to evaporate the
sea. Thus frightened, the sea revealed to Him the way to make a bridge
over it. Lord Rama then built a bridge over the sea and landed in Lanka.
A fierce battle followed in which Lord Rama and Laxman together slayed
the demon king Ravan, his brother Kumbhkarn and Megnaad, the son of
Thus, they got Sita free from Ravan's captivity. Crowning Vibhishan, the
brother of Ravan as the King of Lanka, they returned to Ayodha on
Pushpak Vimana. Brahmrishis crowned Rama as the king of Ayodhya. All the
three worlds became happier, healthier and wealthier. Bharat, Lakshmana,
Shatrughn and Hanumanji stayed forever in the service of Lord Rama
always following the moral dictates and put an example for the world of
high morals. As a king, Lord Rama also organized Ashvmegh Yagya.
Shukdev says, "Parikshit, now I narrate about Chandra dynasty. Many
great and pious kings like Pururava had occurred in this dynasty.
Chandrama was the son of Atri, the son of Brahma. Budh was the son of
Chandrama while Pururava was the son of Budh. Ila was the mother of
Pururava. He was very virtuous. Attracted by his virtues, elf Urvashi
had approached Pururava with a sensual desire. Pururava welcomed
Urvashi, and together they begot six sons- Ayu, Shrutayu, Satyayu, Ray,
Vijay and Jay.
Gaadhi :- In the lineage of Vijay the son of Pururava, there had
occurred a king Gaadhi. Gaadhi had a daughter Satyvati. Satyvati was
married to the sage Richik. Richik and Satyvati begot Jamadagni who
married Renuka, the daughter of sage Renu. Jamadagni and Renuka begot
Parashuram. In the same lineage, later on, occurred great kings like
Rantidev, Shibi, Yadu, Kuru, Puru, Dushyant and Bharat. In this lineage
of Kuru, king Shantanu had married Ganga, who gave birth to Bheeshma.
Satyavati, the daughter of Nishad was the second wife of Shantanu. She
begot Chitrangad and Vichitravirya. Chitrangad had died in an encounter
with a demigod of his own name, while Vichitravirya was married to
Ambika and Ambalika the princesses of Kashi. But, having too much caenal
indulgence with his wives, Vichitravirya soon developed tuberculosis and
died without producing a child.
Since, Bheeshma had vowed to abide by celibacy till death, so Vyasji was
summoned to produce children from Ambika and Ambalika. From Vyasji the
two queens and a maid gave birth to Dhritrashtra, Pandu and Vidur
respectively. Dhritrashtra had one hundred sons. The Kuaravas, while
Pandu's wife Kunti begot Karan, Ydhishthir, Bheem and Arjun. Pandu's
second wife Madri begot Nakul and Sahdev. Arjun had married Subhadra,
the sister of Lord Krishna also. Subhadra had begot Abhimanyu who was
married to Uttra, the daughter of Viratraja, and you were born to
Uttara, O Parikshit.
In Yaduvansh, lineage of Yadu a king Shursen had occurred. He had a son
Vasudev. Vasudev had eight wives. Devaki was the prominent among them.
Nine children were born to them. Kansa, the brother of Devki, killed six
of them. Seventh was Balrama, eighth Krishna, and at ninth place was her
Shukdev says, "O Parikshit, Lord Himself had appeared as the son of
Vasudev and Devaki. Whenever the religion and religious virtues fall in
the world and sins rises, the omnipotent, Lord Shri Hari takes
incarnation to destroy the evils, and protect the pious ones and
establish the religion again.
When the evil demons took the guise of the kings and began to route the
earth, Lord Vishnu then took the incarnation as Lord Krishna. Along with
Him, Sheshnaga, His bed, also took incarnation as Balarama, in Yadu
Vansh. Together they presented such divine plays that even the gods
could not guess them.
At the same time, to benefit the devotees, who would be born in
Kaliyuga, Lord Krishna expounded His pious life into uncountable
incidents. Merely by reciting and hearing the tales of Lord's life, all
the sorrows, melancholis and ignorance of the devotees are removed.
Through the battle of Mahabharata between Kauravas and Pandavas, Lord
Krishna relieved the earth of most of her burdens. He Himself slayed
many demons, while got many slain by Balarana. Ultimately, preaching
Uddhav about metaphysical knowledge, Lord Krishna departed to His divine
This chapter is
very large - containing 85 sub-sections.
Hearing the tales of Royal dynasties from Shukdev, king Parikshit
requested "Guruvar, you have just narrated the suprising tale of
Suryvansh and Chandravansh (dynasties). Now I wish to hear the tales of
Lord Krishna's life in detail. It was because of God's grace that my
ancestors could successfully win the Mahabharata. I to had experienced
Lords grace while I was an unborne child and Ashvathama had triggered
Brahmastra to destroy me. It was the Lord himself who saved me from the
heat of Brahmastra with his wheel. O sage, therefore, kindly narrate the
tale of Krishna's life who is the soul of every living being. I do not
feel thirsty or hungry while hearing the pious tale of God's life from
Pleased by the pure devotion of Parikshit for God, Shukdev Says, "When
the atrocities of evil demons increased on earth beyond a certain limit,
the perplexed earth reached to Brahma in the guise of a cow, and vented
her sorrows. Brahma took her and Lord Shiva to Lord Vishnu and prayed
Him through Purushsukta. Lord heard their prayers and said, "I know
about the sufferings of poor earth. Very soon, I'll take incarnation in
Yaduvansh to elevate her burden. All the gods, should take birth in
Yadukul to assist me during my human incarnation. And to serve my
beloved Radha, all the elves should appear as the womenfolk of Yudu
Brahma dictated the gods and said that even Yog Maya (personification of
illusions) of Lord Vishnu would take a partial incarnation to assist the
Lord in His plays. Thus consoling the earth Brahma returned to his
Shursen's son Vasudev was married to Devaki, the daughter of Devak.
After the marriage ceremony, Ugrasen's son and Devki's cousin Kansa was
driving the chariot of newly wedded couple. On the way a celestial voice
proclaimed " O Fool Kansa, the eighth son of your beloved sister, whose
chariot you are driving so affectionately, shall be the cause of your
death.." Hearing the voice Kansa drew out his sword to kill Devaki. But
Vasudev prayed to him politely, "Prince Kansa, you are the descendent of
Bhoj dynasty, you are a brave man. It does not fit you bravery that you
are yourself ready to kill your sister. She is a woman and has just got
married. She has not done any harm to you, she deserves pity. If you
fear her children, I promise that I will give all her children to you."
Thus assured by truth abiding Vasudev's words, Kansa dropped the idea of
As per his promise, Vasudev gave his first newborn child to Kansa.
Pleased by Vasudev's abidance to truth, Kansa said, "You eighth son will
be my enemy, so I will kill only your eighth son. Take the child back."
At the same time, singing in Lord's praise, Devarishi Narad appeared
there and said, "O Kansa in view of rising atrocities of demons, Lord
Narayana himself will take birth in Yaduvansh. Besides Him, all the
cowboys and all others who belonged to Yadav clan are none other than
the gods in Human guise. The gods are making massive preparations to
exterminate evil kings and as a lotus has only eight petals and no one
can mark out its eighth petal, similarly, Devaki will have eight
children and no one would be able to find out who is the eighth." Saying
this, Devarishi Narad disappeared,
Kansa got firm belief that all the Yaduvanshis were gods and that Lord
Vishnu Himself would take birth as Vasudev and Devaki's son to kill him.
He, therefore, put Vasudev and Devaki in the prison. Since then Kansa
killed the children one by one soon after their birth,
Shesh Narayana Himself appeared as the seventh son. While he was still
unborn, Lord Vishnu through His Yogmaya (personified illusion),
transfered the embryo in Rohini's womb. Lord dictated Yogamaa that she
herself should take birth from Yashoda, the wife of Nand, in Gokul. He
also blessed her that in future, people would worship her as Durga,
Chandika, Bhadrakali, Narayani, Vaishnavi etc. When the seventh fetus
was transferred, Kansa got worried how was it destroyed. His fears and
melancholy increased since then. A fear gripped him that his death was
very near now.
Kans had known that during the battle between the gods and demons he was
the demon Kalnemi, and he was killed by Lord Vishnu. So fearing Lord
Vishnu rallying with Yaduvanshis, Kansa cultivated high degree of
hostility towards them. He captured even his father Ugrasen and put him
in the prison. Now the reign of the kingdom was entirely in his hands.
Kansa was himself very strong and also had the assistance of his
father-in-law, Jarasandh. Formidable demon like Pralamb, Baka, Chanur,
Trinavart, Aghasur, Mushtik, Arisht, Dvivid, Pootana, Kashi and Dhenuk
were his courtiers. As a result of Kansa atrocities en mass exodus of
Yaduvanshis from Mathura followed. These Yaduvanshis left Mathura and
settled in regions like Kuru, Panchal etc. Still some of them accepted
to serve Kansa, but only superficially.
When all pervasive Lord saw that Yaduvanshis were being tortured without
reason, He transferred his glory in Vasudev. Through Vasudev, Devaki
received that brilliant part of the lord. On the other hand, Kansa also
came to know about Devaki's eighth issue. Since, then his hostility
surged unprecidently and he began to wait for the birth of Devaki's
eight son very anxiously. All it means to say that Kansa mind reflected
on God every moment day in and day out.
The long awaited day also arrived at last. It was the eighth day in the
waning (darker) phase of the lunar month of Bhadrapada (corresponding to
August/September). Rohini, the brightest star was rising while dense
clouds had gathered in the sky.
Before actual arrival, Lord manifested Himself before Vasudev and
Devaki. They felt as if a full moon had risen in the east. Vasudev saw
that an extraordinarily marvellous baby boy was standing before them.
His eyes were as soft as lotus; He had four arms and held a conch, mace,
wheel and lotus. He bore Kaustubh Mani in the neck and wore yellow
clothes. Valuable ornaments adorned all parts of his body. Thus, seeing
God himself arrived as his son, Vasudev was overwhelmed. Devaki too was
overjoyed but feared Kansa first. Then she joyfully prayed to God. God
said then, "During Swayambhu Manvantar, both of you had worshipped me
with a desire of son. Vasudev was a Prajapati Sutapa while you were his
wife Prishni. You had worshipped me with pure hearts. Pleased by your
penance I had asked you to seek a boon, so you had sought a son like me
in virtues. I had arrived then as your son Prishnigarbh. In the next
birth you were Kashyap and Aditi and I was Upendra. Now, in the third
birth also. I have arrived as your son."
Saying this, the Lord transformed Himself into an ordinary baby. From
the inspiration of God, Vasudev wished to move the baby out of the
prison. Instantaneously, all the locks of the jail opened automatically
and the guards fell asleep. Carrying the baby in a winnower, Vasudev set
out for Gokul across the river Yamuna.
It was raining heavily, so Sheshnaga followed them shading the baby with
his hoods. Vasudev entered the river Yamuna. Yamuna too felt overjoyed
that her most beloved lord has come to her. Hence, she began to rise in
order to touch His feet. Dangling his feet behind Vasudev, God let
Yamuna touch them. Touching the feet, the swelling river receded at once
and gave Vasudev a safe passage. Crossing the river, Vasudev reached
Gokul. There, he entered the home of Nand and kept the baby beside
Yashoda and took her new born baby girl and brought her to the prison.
As soon as Vasudev kept the baby girl in Devaki's lap, the gates locked
up again and the guards awakened.
The baby who was actually Yogmaya (personification of illusion) began to
cry. The guards at once ran to inform Kansa about the birth. Kansa came
running and snatched the baby from Devaki and proceeded to throw her on
the stone. But before he could throw her, the baby escaped from his
hands and assumed Ashtbhuji (eight-armed) Durga appearance in the sky
and reprimanded him: "O fool, why are you trying to kill me, when you
can't even harm me, the one who will kill you, has already appearred.
Now stop killing the innocent children." Kansa stood stunned by the
talks and appearance of the goddess. Goddess Bhagwadi disappeared and
became omnipresent. She is now venerable with different names in
After the disappearance of Goddess (Yogmaya) Kansa felt remorse. He at
once fell at the feet of his sister Devaki and brother-in-law Vasudev
and began to beg their pardon. Thereafter, Kansa released both of them.
In the morning, Kansa held a discussion with his ministers. The
ministers, who were formidable demons themselves, assured Kans that they
would kill all the babies born within ten days and destroy the Brahmins,
cows, gods, ascetics and all those who could pose potential danger to
Shukdev says: "O Parikshit, the demons were Rajoguni (having royal
virtues) and Tamoguni (Virtues of darkness) and hence were unable to
differentiate good from evils. Their extermination was imminent. That
was why they cultivated hostility towards saints and saintly people. O
King, those, who disregard saintly people, loose their life, wealth,
reputation, religion and everything.
Devaki's seventh baby was transferred before birth into the womb of
Rohini. The baby was born as Baldevji. At his birth, Brahmins blessed
Nand. But laughingly Nand said: "O holy Brahmins, this baby is not mine.
It is born to my friend's wife." Brahmins said then: "Okay Baba, we will
return only when your wife bears a child. The Brahmins thereafter
organised grand worships. By their blessings Yashoda conceived.
It was Wednesday, the eighth day in the darker phase of the lunar month
Bhadrapada (August/September), when Yashoda said to her sister-in-law
Sunanda: "Sister, kindly wake me up, when the baby takes birth," Sunanda
laughed at that. It was in fact the influence of Yogmaya. When Yogmaya
took birth, all the people around her were fast asleep and continued to
sleep until Vasudev came there and replaced the baby girl with baby boy.
Soon after Vasudev left, Yashoda awakened from slumber and saw an
extremely beautiful baby boy beside her. Nand was meditating then in the
cowshed. He was informed at once. His heart too filled with supernatural
joy. He took his bath, and droned new clothes. Then he summoned the
Brahmins and got necessary rituals performed. Served the gods and his
ancestors and donated cows, clothes, ornaments and cereals to the
As Nand was the chief of Vraj region, so all the people decided to
celebrate baby's birth. All the houses, streets and lanes were cleaned
and sprinkled with scented waters. All the gateways were embellished
with flags, pylons and festoons. All the villagers began to gather in
and around Nand's home. Ladiesfolk also felt overjoyed by the news of
the birth of Yashoda's son. Even the cows, oxen and calves also were
adorned beautifully. Brahma, Narad, Sanakadi etc. were all having the
sight of lord from heaven. Even Lakshmi appeared in Gokul, illuminating
all the azimuths. Gopis (ladiesfolk) decorated their palms with henna,
anointed themselves with ubatan (a paste composed of gram floor and many
herbs, supposed to enhance beauty) and took bath. Then they adorned
themselves from tip to toes and set out for Nand's homes with various
gifts. At Nand's home they sprinkled the baby with water containing
turmeric and oil and sang auspicious songs loudly.
Thus, when lord appeared in Braj, grand celebration was organised in His
welcome, auspicious music was played. The menfolk celebrated the joy
spraying one another with milk, curd, butter etc. Nand presented the
people generously with clothes, ornaments and cows. Prisoners, ascetics
and beggars were given alms. At the request of Nand, Rohini herself
welcomed the womenfolk. Since the arrival of lord, prosperity too came
to stay in Vraj.
Shukdev says: 'Parikshit, after many days, entrusting other Gopals with
the onus of guarding Gokul, Nand went to Mathura to pay annual taxes in
Kansa's court. Vasudev too learned about his arrival and went to see
him. Nand felt overjoyed to see Vasudev and embraced him affectionately.
Vasudev asked Nand: "Your age is declining now. It is very fortunate now
that you have also got a son. My Son Balarama and wife Rohini are
staying with you. He would be regarding you as his parents." Nand said:
The evil Kansa killed many of your children. He did not even spare your
daughter, No doubt, happiness and sorrow are bound to ones fate."
Vasudev said: "Brother, now your duties here are over. You should not
stay here for long, because I fear some disturbances in Gokul in your
absence. Hearing this, Nand at once set out for Gokul. In the way, he
reflected over the words of Vasudev and prayed God: "May God, everything
thing be well in Gokul. There in Gokul however a curious incidence took
place. After his discussion with evil ministers,
Kansa had sent a cruel ogress Pootana to kill all the newly born babies
in his kingdom. In the guise of an extremely pretty woman, Pootana
entered Gokul. She hypnotized the menfolk with her sweet smile and
flirting glances. She searched new-born babies here and there and
entered Nand's home eventually. Baby Lord Krishna was sleeping in the
cradle. He had known about her arrival; but posed as if He were asleep.
Pootana is a form of non-knowledge with an alluring outward appearance.
Lord Krishna was only six days old then.
Pootana's breasts were filled with poison. Such as someone lifts a
sleeping snake mistaking it for a rope. Similarly Pootana lifted the
baby who proved her death. Pootana took the baby to secluded place and
began to breast feed him. Lord prayed to Lord Shiva who came to stay in
His throat and drank all the poison from the milk. Thereafter the Lord
began to suck Pootana's life. Perplexed Pootana began to cry loudly and
writhe nervously. As her death approached she regained her real, ogress
appearance. All the men and women were frightened when they saw the
huge, formidable body of Pootana. But when they saw Krishna playing
nearby, their fear gone and with joy they lifted the baby and soothed
Meanwhile, Nand and his fellow Gopas too arrived from Mathura. Pootana's
body testified the truth of Vasudev's words. Gopas cut Pootana's body
into many pieces and burnt them outside Gokul. When her body was
burning, a sweet smell of Agar (a kind of scented wood used in incense
making) spread all around. Because Lord himself had fed on her milk, So
all her sins were destroyed. Lord regarded her as his mother and hence
When lord Krishna was twenty-seven days old, a festival was organised in
Gokul. Mata Yashoda bathed the baby while the Brahmins recited hymns.
Yashoda saw that baby was feeling sleepy, so putting him in a cradle,
she left it under a cart. The cart was loaded with pitchers of milk,
curd and butter. After sometime, lord Krishna awoke and began to cry for
a feed. But amidst festivities, Yashoda could not hear his cries.
Meanwhile a demon Shakatasur rode the cart wishing to press the cart and
thereby kill the Lord. But before he could act, the Lord touched the
cart with His feet and lo and behold! The cart turned over and all the
utensils kept on it came crashing down. Even the demon was crushed to
death under the cart. Other boys, who were playing nearby, informed the
Gopis (ladiesfolk) that the little Kanhaiya had turned over the loaded
cart, but they did not believe the kids. Yashoda ran in horror and
lifted the baby in her lap. The Brahmins recited pacifying hymns then.
Thereafter the baby was bathed again with sanctified water. A feast of
Brahmins followed then. Ultimately they were seen off with many gifts.
Once Mata Yashoda was playing with the baby lord in her home. All of a
sudden she felt as if the baby was getting disproportionately heavy.
Soon, she felt herself unable to bear the child anymore. So she left the
child on the ground and began to pray Purushottama Lord Rama. Soon
afterwards she forgot about the event, but all was not over yet.
Trinavart, a demon minister of Kansa, had arrived in Gokul as a fierce
cyclone. He covered entire Gokul with dust and blinded the people
temporarily. For a moment people could not see anything and during that
moment Trinavart blew the baby in air with him. When the dust settled,
Yashoda did not find the baby Krishna where she had left him. She felt
extremely sorry and fell on ground in depression. Other womenfolk also
gathered round her. They too began to cry not seeing baby Krishna there.
In the form of cyclone, the demon Trinavart had blown baby Krishna with
him; but he too could not bear his heavy burden. So he began to lose his
velocity. Lord Krishna caught him by neck. The demon died in a few
moments and his dead body fell in Vraj. And Yashoda got a new lease of
life when she saw baby Krishna safe and sound. Nand and other Gopas too
Once, the supreme ascetic Gargacharya arrived in Gokul. He was the
ancestral teacher of Yaduvanshis. Nand joyfully welcomed and treated the
hermit. Then he requested him to carry out the ritual of naming and
suggest suitable named for both of his sons. Acharya Garg said, "O Nand,
everyone knows that I am the ancestral teacher of the Yadavs. If I carry
out the naming ritual for these boys, people will understand that they
are Devaki's sons." So Nand requested Gargacharya to name his sons
secretly. Gargacharya accepted his request and carried out the naming
rituals secretly in Nand's cattle shed.
Garg said: "This son of Rohini will cause by his virtue, great pleasures
for his near and dear ones. So his second name will be Rama. And because
of excessive strength, people will call him as Bala also. Since he will
unite the people also, so one of his names would be Sankarshana."
Thereafter, Garg said pointing to Yashodanandan. He has taken
incarnation in every age. In the past ages, he had taken white, red and
yellow complexions respectively. This time he has taken dark complexion,
so he will be known as Krishna. Once he has been the son of Vasudev, so
people will call him as Vasudev also. He will cause salvation of all of
you, and great joy for the fellow Gopas and cows. With his help, you
will overcome even the severe crises. O Nand, This boy will be equal to
Narayana in virtues, wealth, beauty, fame and influence. Foster this
child with care and earnestness." Thus naming the boys as per their
virtues, Garg returned to his hermitage.
Shukdev says: "O Parikshit, time passed in Gokul as usual. Balrama and
Krishna too grew normally. Soon they began to walk on knees and palms.
With their childish plays they both amused men and women folk of Gokul.
Everyone took special care of them and looked after them to save them
from any possible danger. Ladiesfolk were specially careful about them.
Soon afterwards, both the kids began to walk trottingly. Now their
movement no longer confined within the boundary of their home. Because
of his special virtues, Krishna began to lead other kids of his age
group whereas his elder brother Balarama was somewhat serious in nature.
Krishna specially enjoyed teasing the girls and milkmaids of Gokul.
Often he would eat stealing their milk, curd and butter. At other times,
He did not hesitate even to break their pitchers. In such situations the
ladiesfolk used to gather in Nand's home to complain against Krishna.
And every time Yashoda promised them to punish Krishna. But every time,
when she proceeded to punish him, she forgot everything before his
sweet, innocent smile.
One day, Balarama complained against Krishna, "Ma, the little Kanhaiya
has eaten mud. Worried about Krishna's health, Yashoda scolded at him:
"Tell me, O mischievous Krishna, why did you eat mud". At that moment,
little Krishna's eyes were moving with fear. He made an excuse: "No Ma,
I have not eaten any mud. They are telling yoou a lie. If you don't
believe, me see yourself." Saying this, Krishna opened his little mouth.
Yashoda peeped into his mouth and what she saw there amazed her. She
could not believe it. The entire universe was visible in his little
mouth. Yashoda saw strange places, entire Vraj and even herself in the
little mouth of Krishna. She felt dizzy. With his illusionary powers,
Lord wiped out the memory of this incidence from the mind of Yashoda,
and she again immersed in love with her child.
Once, wishing to feed Krishna with butter, Yashoda began to churn milk
in the morning . Very soon, Krishna too awakened and not finding the
mother on her bed, He set out to search her. Soon He found her in the
courtyard where she was churning the milk. He began to insist for breast
feeding at once. So Yashoda stopped churning and began to breast feed
Krishna. Affection played on her face. Suddenly the milk kept on the
fire pot began to boil. Yashoda left Krishna in order to attend the
boiling milk. But the unstiated Krishna filled with anger and broke the
pitcher of curd. Then he went inside and began to eat butter, when
Yashoda came back, she understood the matter and began to search him
with a stick in her hand. After eating butter himself, Krishna was now
feeding the monkeys with it. Seeing the mother come in hot pursuit,
Krishna jumped over the mortar and ran away. Yashoda chased him, but
soon felt tired because of her bulky body.
Thereafter, Yashoda proceeded to tie Krishna as a punishment. She got a
rope and tried to tie Krishna. But the rope fell short by two fingers.
She joined many ropes together but the result was same. Every time the
ropes fell short by two fingers. Soon, Yashoda was bathing in sweat.
When Krishna saw his mother in depression, he himself tied in the ropes.
Tethering little Krishna to a heavy mortar, Yashoda engaged in usual
household tasks. Tethered to the mortar, Krishna glanced at the two
Arjun trees, which were standing on the gate like two sentries. He
resolved to salve them.
King Parikshit asked Shukdev about the trees. Shukdev said: "Parikshit,
the lord of wealth Kuber had two sons Nalkubar and Manigreev. One day
they were enjoying the sweet company of pretty women on the bank of
Mandakini river. Just by coincidence, Devarshi Narad arrived there. Out
of Shyness, the women folk at once covered themselves, but both the sons
of Kuber stood boldly without feeling any shame. Indignant Narad cursed
them to become trees and stay in that form for one hundred years. Narad
showed kindness as well that despite being in tree forms, they would
have the memory of God alive and would be salved by Lord Shri Krishna.
Thus, to keep the words of his supreme devotee Narad, Lord dragged the
mortar to the two Arjun trees. He walked in such a way that the mortar
got stuck between the trees. Krishna then pulled the mortar and in no
time the trees were uprooted. Two divine men appeared from the uprooted
trees and bowed at the feet of Krishna and prayed him with pure hearts.
Then they departed to their heavenly abode.
The uprooted Arjun trees fell with thundering sound. All the people
shivered with fear and felt as if lightning had struck somewhere. All
the elders including Nand met together and discussed the matter.
Unanimously they concluded that, of late disturbance had increased in
Gokul and the circumstances were no longer conducive to raise the kids
like Balarama and Krishna there. So they unanimously decided to leave
Gokul and migrate to a verdant place named Vrindavana. In their opinion,
Vrindavana had ample vegetation and fertility to support them and their
Thus, on an auspicious day, the entire population of Gokul set out for
Vrindavana. They packed their households on bullock carts and drove
their cattles in herds and started in convoy. In Vrindavana they built
their houses and started their life once again.
Shukdev says: "O Parikshit, verdant environment of Vrindavana, Govardhan
mountain and crystal clear waters and sandy banks of Yamuna river
together filled the hearts of Balarama and Krishna with joy. Along with
the fellow cowherds, they began diverse kinds of plays there.
One day, Balarama and Krishna were grazing their cattles on the bank of
Yamuna River. A demon, meanwhile, took the guise of a calf and mixed
with the herd. Obviously, he had malicious intentions. Lord Krishna had
already seen the demon taking calf's guise and mixing up with the herd.
He signaled Balarama and they together reached near the calf. The calf
appeared particularly healthy, so Krishna and Balarama mockingly saw it
with admiring eyes. Suddenly they held the calf with its hind legs and
tail twirling it in air they threw it in the sky. When the demon died,
they threw him on a Kath (wood-apple) tree.
One day, all the cowherds took their cattles to a large pond to let them
drink water. There they say a huge creature sitting like a hillock on
the bank. They were frightened by its appearance. The creature was in
fact a demon named Bakasur who had arrived there in the guise of a
storke. He was himself very strong and had a long pointed bill. As soon
as the cowherds drew near him, The storke hastily picked up Krishna and
swallowed him. Other cowherds including Balaram were stupefied. They
could not believe their eyes. But inside the beak, Lord Krishna made
himself extremely hot and caused severe burning in demon's throat. So
the demon could not swallow Krishna and regurgitated him, and began to
hit him with his strong beak. But Lord held his beak with both his hands
and tore the demon's mouth apart. And as son as the demon died, a ripple
of joy surged among the cowherds.
One day, Krishna planned a picnic near Nandanvan. So rising early in the
morning, He awakened his fellow cowherds sounding a horn. Together, all
the cowherds, and their cattles went to the forest. There, on the bank
of Yamuna river they began to play joyfully.
Nandanvana was in fact an abode of the demon Aghasur. He was sent there
by Kansa. Seeing the boys playing, he felt extremely jealous. Knowing
that Krishna had killed his brothers Bakasur and sister Pootana. It
seemed an ideal moment for the demon to avenge the death of his
siblings. Thinking thus, the demon took guise of python and lay in the
way and opening his mouth like an opening of a cave. The cowherds too
fell in his trap. Thus driven by curiosity, all the cowherds entered the
demon mouth one by one. When Lord Krishna saw that his friends had
entered demon's mouth. He too entered it to protect them. Aghasur wanted
to masticate the cowherds including lord Krishna; but the lord increased
his body and choked demon throat. Now the breath of demon stopped. His
eyes rolled over and at last his life left his body through Brahmrandhra
(cosmic pore). With his ambrosial eye, Lord resurrected these dead
fellows and their cattles and together they came out of the demon's
mouth. As soon as the demon died, a divine flame emerged from the
python's mouth. It waited there sometime for God. And when lord Krishna
came out, the flame mingled with him.
Shukdev says: Parikshit, the cowherds told the tale of Aghasur's
salvation to their parents only after a year of the incidence. During
that period of one year, Lord Krishna multiplied himself and took the
guise of his fellow cowherd and their stock of cattles to remove the
Illusion of Brahma,who was the cause of the following incidence.
After Aghasur's life mingled with God, Lord Krishna came with this
fellow cowherd on the bank of Yamuna. They left their cattles to graze
freely and they sat together to take their lunch. All of the cowherds
tasted one-another's food, as they wanted to feed Krishna with the tasty
food. Meanwhile surprised by Aghasur's salvation, Brahma too had arrived
their and saw Krishna eating food defiled by the cowherds. With that
sight, Brahma grew suspicious if Krishna was indeed an incarnation of
lord. Thus driven by the illusion and to test the authenticity of lord's
incarnation, Brahma kidnapped all the cattles first and when Krishna
went out to search the cattles Brahma kidnapped and concealed the
cowherds also. Soon lord Krishna understood the craftiness of Brahma, so
he multiplicated himself into his fellow cowherds and cattles. Replicas
resembled truly to the cowherds in appearance, complexion, nature,
activities, voice, sticks and even in costumes. The replicas remain in
existence for complete one year.
Back there, when Brahma returned after hiding the cowherds and the
cattles, he was stunned to see the cowherds and cattles as usual. Brahma
was feeling dizzy when lord bestowed his grace on him. Brahma saw
Narayana in every dust particle. Brahma therefore bowed his head at the
feet of lord and said: "O lord, I submit before you. You can be won only
with devotion and not by ego. No one can know your omnipresent
appearance. Thus praying and worshipping lord Narayana, Brahma returned
to his abode. Shukdev says: The cowherds remained separated from God for
one year. But they felt as if only half a second had passed because of
the illusionary influence of God. That is why they related the incidence
of Aghasurs killing to their parents only after a year it took place.
When Krishna and Balarama entered sixth year of their ages, they got the
permission to take the cattles out for grazing. Along with their fellow
cowherds the two brothers too began to take their cattle to Vrindavana.
Thus they sanctified the earth of Vrindavana with their pious feet.
Seeing the beauty of Vrindavana, with beautiful, colourful flowers and
sweet fruits, Lord Krishna felt overjoyed. He then used to graze his
cattles at the foothills of Govardhan and on the banks of Yamuna River.
Playing flute was his favourite pass time. One day Krishna's beloved
friend Sudama said: Kanhaiya, there is a beautiful forest name Talvana.
It has uncountable numbers of trees laden with ripe fruits. But a
formidable demon Dhenukasur guards that forest, He is very strong. So no
one, even animals and birds, doesn't go there. But we are tempted to eat
those sweet delicious fruits. If you and Daau (Balarama) wish, we may go
there and eat those delicious fruits."
Thus hearing this, Krishna and Balarama guided all of them to Talvana.
There they shook the trees and in no time a heap of ripe, delicious
fruits gathered under the trees. All the cowherds began to eat fruits.
While eating, they were also making lot of noises. Disturbed by the
sound of fruits falling and noise of the cowherds, the demon Dhenukasur
arrived there as a donkey. He was braying loudly and tried to hit
Balarama, but Balrama caught him by his hind legs and threw him in the
air. The demon died in an instance. Since that day, everyone visited
Talvana fearlessly and the cattles grazed there freely.
One day, Bala-Krishna arrived on the banks of Yamuna with their friends.
Balarama was not with them that day. The water of the river Yamuna was
toxicated by the poison of Kaliy- The Naga. It was exceptionally hot
that day and all the cowherds and cattles were very thirsty. So without
giving any thought, they all drank the water from Yamuna and died. But
Lord Krishna resurrected them by his ambrosial sight.
Then lord Krishna decided to purify the waters of Yamuna. Thus tying a
cloth round his waist, Krishna climbed a Cadamb tree and jumped into the
river. In the water the lord started playing and splashing water. Soon
the waves began to rise high. When Kaliy- the Naga heard the noise. He
got extremely angry and appeared before Krishna. He saw a beautiful,
tender, dark complexioned boy playing joyfully in the waters. He stung
him and tied him in his spirals. Tied in the spirals of Kaliy, lord
became absolutely motionless. Seeing Krishna in death like situation,
all the cowherds and even the cows felt very sorry. Just then lord freed
himself from the hold of Kaliy. Then a game of hide and seek began
between them. Lord dodged the Naga for a long time. Thereafter he rode
on Kaliy's hood and began to dance there.
The followers of God, like Gandharvas etc. began to play Mridang, Dhol
etc. to give him a company. Tired from the blows of lord's feet, Kaliy
soon began to vomit blood. Naga's wives began to pray God, "O lord, your
incarnation is to punish the evil ones for their sins. You have shown
your grace on us also. We are fortunate to have a sight and touch of
your feet. Pity O lord. This Naga can no longer bear your momentum. He
will die. We are all your slaves. Kaliy is our lord. Kindly forgive
him." With kindness, lord released Kaliy, who prayed thus: O lord in
your creation we snakes represent Tamoguna (dark virtues). We are
confused by your illusions." Lord dictated Kaliy to migrate with his
family to Ramanakdweep. Since then water of Yamuna became pure for
humans and animals.
After defeating Kaliy, Lord Krishna and all other people of Vraj felt
extremely tired. They were very hungry and thirsty also. So they did not
go back to Vrindavana, but stayed on the bank of Yamuna in the night.
Because of intense heat of summer, surrounding forests had been
shrivelled. At midnight those shrivelled forests caught fire and the
sleeping people were engulfed by it. They awakened startled and took
shelter at Krishna. Seeing their horrified appearance, Lord Krishna
drank the infernal forest fire and thus saved the lives of innocent
people who had rested their live's at him with faith.
One day, Balarama and Krishna were playfully grazing their cattles along
with other cowherds in the forests. When a demon Pralamb arrived there
with an intention of kidnapping Krishna and Balarama. The demon had come
in the guise of a cowherd, but the God easily recognised him. They
accepted his proposal of friendship, but were thinking about the way for
his salvation. God thereafter summoned all his friends and said: "Pals,
today we shall divide ourselves in to two teams and play joyfully. Thus
the teams were divided and each team chose Krishna and Balarama as its
captain respectively. It was stipulated that the members of defeated
team would carry the members of winner team on their back up to the
place pointed by them. Thus the game began and soon both the teams
reached a secluded place.
At one time, the team headed by Balarama won. So the members of
Krishna's team were to carry them on their back. Demon Pralambasur
offered Balarama a ride on his back. Balarama agreed to ride on the
demon's back; but as soon as he rode on the demon's back, the demon
galloped. But he could not go far for not being able to bear Balarama's
weight. Them the demon regained his huge formidable size and tried to
escape by flying. First Balarama felt terrorized but soon he realised
his real powers and hit on the demon's head with a powerful fist. The
blow shattered demon's head and he fell on earth dead like a huge
Shri Shukdevji says: "O king, most of the time of Lord Krishna's boyhood
passed in Vrindavana. There he grazed cattles and played flute. His
flute had a divine, enchanting sound.The Gopis (girls) gathered around
him under the influence of enchanting tunes."
They also heard the enchanting Venu geet that fills one hearts with the
memory of Bhagwad. One of the girl said to her friend: "O dear friend,
Having the privilege of seeing Lords beauty and receving his kindness is
the real salvation. Another girl said: "O friend, what penance this
flute had observed that it has got a closer contact with lips of
Nandnandan (an epithet for Krishna). Even the siblings of this flute,
trees and other vegetation's are pleased with its fortune and are hence
showering their leaves and flowers on him." One more said: "O friend,
look, even Bhagwadi Lakshmi has left her luxurious abode in Vaikunth and
arrived in Vrindavana to have a look of lord Devakinandan." A Gopi
expressed her jealousy: "Even this doe is better than us, O friends,
look how engrossed is she looking at God, that her eyes are not
Hearing the sweet enchanting tunes of flute even the heavenly elves
gather in the sky over Vrindavana. They also see the beauty of lord
Krishna and showered the flowers of their braids on him. Even the cows
forgot grazing when then heard the enchanting music of flute. The calves
too forgot drinking milk and began to look at lord Krishna with joy.
This is the real devotion for lord Krishna. You have to forget yourself
in order to find him. Condition of girls of Vrindavana was exactly the
same. After having the sight of lord Krishna they remembered nothing;
not even the way back to home. They stood in the forests in a trance,
completely tired, unaware of their self.
A girl said pointing to the fauna: "Look O friends, look at these birds.
Do you know that these birds were the saints and sages in their previous
births. In this birth also they are sitting in a state of trance. Look
they have forgotten their knowledge hearing the sweet enchanting music
of the flute. And look at Yamunaji. She is also ale to contain her
exhilaration. She is eagerly spalshing her waves to wash lords feet. Yet
another girl said: "Look friends the clouds cannot see their lord
scorching in the sun. So they have covered the sun and shaded Lord
Krishna. Now they are drizzling as if showering petals." A girl said:
"Friends, look, these Bheelanis are better than us. They have such a
strong urge of Krishna's sight that when Govind returns home, they smear
their body with dusts of his feet. Blessed is this mountain which has
dedicated its entire self in the feet of Brajnandan and feels overjoyed.
It is his supreme devotee. Kanhaiya has infused even non-living things
with life by his sweet tunes of flute.
The unmarried girls of Vrindavana felt as if their lives were dedicated
to Lord Krishna. Each of them wished heartly to have lord Krishna as her
husband. So in order to get their desire fulfilled, all of the spinster
girls of Vraj began to take bath in Yamuna early in morning of Hemant
season and worshipped goddess Katyayani. When MadanMohan learned that
the spinsters girls wished to marry him. He went to see them at dawn.
The girls were bathing naked in the river; Their clothes were kept on
the bank. Lord Krishna stealthy took those clothes and climbed on a
Cadamb tree. Lord had not stolen their clothes with malicious
intentions. He had stolen them to remove their flaws and make them
realize their real appearance that they were not mere girls, but pure
souls. Without realization of the real self, one can not experience the
The girl were in fact the hymns of Vedas, Sadhana, Siddhis, Sages and
Brahmvidyas (Vedas) themselves, that took the guise of girls to enjoy
the vicinity of God. God removed their clothes that symbolized lust.
Because of the lords grace they all were able to enjoy God's company.
Shukdevji says: "O Parikshit, Thus Lord Krishna removed the shyness of
the girls of Vraj through his sweet talks. He derided at them, made them
dance like puppets and even stole their clothes when they were bathing
naked, but they did not deter his actions. Instead they felt overjoyed
by the close presence of their beloved Kanha.
Shukhdevji says: "O Parikshit one day, Balarama and Krishna saw that
many delicious kind of sweetmeats were being cooked at home. With
curiosity and politeness, they asked Nand and other elders: "Father,
which festival are you preparing for? Which god will be worshipped? What
purpose will such worship serve? Nand Baba explained: "Sons Devaraj
Indra is the god of clouds. It is because of Indra's grace we get rain.
So these materials are being prepared to worship Indra."
Krishna said: Father every creature in the world enjoys comforts or
suffers as per his fate. None of the gods can change the results. Action
is prime in the world. One gets the results as per his actions. Even
Indra is God as a result of his action. Any one who performs one hundred
Ashvamegh Yagyas, becomes Indra. But even after performing crores of
Ashvmegh Yagyas one can not get a stay in Vraj. It is the duty of Indra
to cause rain. So it will rain even if you don't worship Indra. But to
feed the poors and satisfy them with clothes and other gifts is real
worship. By their blessing, we shall be more happier. I desire that with
all these materials we should worship Giriraj Govardhan and distribute
the prasad among the poors. With which their souls will be sated and
will have the grace of God.
Thus Lord Krishna told his father that all the people should worship
unitedly and unitedly they should receive prasad. If you are ready to do
as per my desire, its all right, otherwise I will not worship your
haughty god, nor receive his prasad.
Thus convinced by Kanhaiya's wise reasoning, all the gopas agreed to
him. Nand Baba said, "O Krishna, we are making all these preparation for
you only and we will do as you say. We will worship Govardhan. For us
Govardhan is also like a god. It gives us grass, water, and fuel etc.,
which are necessary for our lives. Thus with lords, consent, they
dropped their plan to worship Indra and resolved to worship Govardhan
On the Purnima (full moon) day in the month of Kartik (November) all the
Gopas (people of Vraj region) gathered near mount Govardhan. During the
night all of them circumambulated the mountain. Lord invoked the Ganges
by his wish and bathed Govardhan with her water.Then they put vermilion
on it, offered basil-leaves, flowers etc and worshipped it. Brahmins
recited hymns in its praise. To make the people believe in their
rituals, Lord Krishna himself appeared on the mountain in huge form and
exclaimed: "I am Giriraj (the king of the mountain) and began to eat the
offerings. But he as a child was still among the villagers who
faithfully bowed before the mountain. Among them, the child Krishna
said: "look, what a surprise Giriraj has appeared himself and bestowed
his grace on us. He has accepted our worship." There after all the Gopas
distributed Prasad among themselves and felt supremely satisfied.
Shukdevji sayd: Parikshit, when Indra learned that the Gopas had stopped
worshipping him, he grew outrageous. In anger, he ordered the clouds to
rain torrentially over Vraj and cause heavy flood in Vraj region. In no
time dense clouds gathered over Vraj. Soon there was lighting thunder,
darkness and storm all around. Then it rained torrentially. All the
people took refuge at Lord Krishna and prayed him to save them from the
anger of Indra. Lord Krishna said: "Those who regard me as there, are
mine and I am theirs, So there is no need to worry for you."
Saying this, Lord lifted Giriraj on his little finger and called all the
people of Vraj along with their cattles under the lee of Govardhan. Then
he ordered his wheel Sudarshan to absorb the water of the clouds so that
not even a single drop could fall on earth. Thus for seven days
continuously Lord balanced Govardhan on the little finger.Thus Lord
Krishna also came to be known as Giridhari. People who had gathered
around him, just kept on seeing Lords moon-like face and hence did not
feel thirsty or hungry.In fact the comforts those people got during
those seven days are beyond verbal description. Lord held Govardhan on
one hand, and conch in the other, while with the remaining two hands He
began to play this flute. Hearing the tunes of his flute, all the people
of Vraj began to dance with joy. After the rains stopped, all of them
returned to their homes.
When Indra learned about the happenings in Vraj, he soon realised his
mistake. Indra himself reached Vraj and begged lord for his pardon. Then
he gave lord a ceremonial bath with the milk of Surabhi. For protecting
the cows,Thus the Lord also got one more name "Govind".
Shukdevji related to Parikshit the tale of Kamadev's humiliation.
Shridhar Swami calls Raasleela as Kama-vijay leela (defeating of
Kamadeva- Hindu equivalent of cupid). Jagad guru Ballabhacharyaji
decribes it as Lords Divy Vihar (divine enjoyment). The purpose of
describing this tale is just that common people should reflect on the
selfless love of Gopis for Lord Krishna and experience the love of God
for them as well.
Lord is an embodiment of Rasa (Pleasure):
"RASOVAISAH | RASAMHYEVAL ABDHVAANANDI
After conquering Brahma and other gods, ego of Kamadev had surged to
great heights. He, therefore, requested God to quench his thirst for
war. God invited Kamadev to visit Vrindavana on the night of Sharad
Purnima (Full moon night) in season preceding winter), and told him that
on that divine night. He would enjoy the company of crores of Gopis. "If
I have slightest passion for any of them, you will win, otherwise you
That night Lord Krishna added more divinity, more brilliance to it with
a resolution of Raas with the help of Yogmaya (personified illusion). It
was a perfect night for the purpose - flowers bloomed in Vrindavana,
full moon shone, and gentle, cool breeze blew from the banks of river
Yamuna. Amidst this stimulating ambience Lord Krishna began to play an
enchanting tune on his flute. The tune attracted Gopis,their passion
surged to its zenith and under the influence of love for lord Krishna
and as if in trance, all of them ran to meet their beloved Kanhaiya
leaving all their fear, Bondages, patience and shyness behind. Some of
them were intercepted by their husbands and dragged back to home. But
only their physical bodies stayed put, their souls reached Vrindavana.
In Vrindavana on the bank of Yamuna, Gopis saw Vrindavana Vihari
(epithet for Krishna) near their familiar cadamb tree. Yogmaya adorned
all the Gopis from tip to toe. In fact those Gopis were not ordinary
Parikshit asked: "Gopis had not regarded Krishna as Parbrahma. What was
the basis for their passion then? Shukdevji said: "When a wretched
person like Shishupal, who always abused lord Krishna could find supreme
position, there should be no doubt for Gopis who had such a profound
passion for Lord." So Gopis arrived and gathered around Lord Krishna.
To test their devotion and to enhance the honour of Kamadev, Krishna
said to them: "O Gopis, the pure ones, it is not fit for you to stay
here at this hour of night. Go and serve your husbands. Your duties must
be first to your husband's children and cows. They will be waiting for
you eagerly. Go and console them. You can gain me by hearing, reciting,
seeing etc. You need not sit here. Go to your homes."
Gopis, however said: "Govind, we have come to you leaving all the
mundane lusts behind. Now going back is like ruining over lives.It is
the greatest misfortune if someone returns to mundane affairs even after
being at your feet." These words that reflected divine feelings of Gopis
pleased Lord. He began to enjoy their company. But a feeling of ego
began to creep in the minds of Gopis because of lord's closeness. They
began to assume themselves as highly fortunate. To remove their ego,
Lord disappeared right among them.
After the disappearance of God, Gopis were perplexed. Their hearts
burned with desire. They had dedicated their entire selves in the feet
of Lord. They were entirely merged in the love of Krishna. Thus driven
by passion, Gopis began to search Lord Krishna. They asked trees,
creepers, vegetations for the whereabouts of their beloved. They then
spotted His footprints at one place. Footprints of Radha were also
there. 'Indeed He would have carried her, that great fortunate one, on
His shoulders.' They thought.
Lord had indeed, after disappearing from amidst Gopis, taken Radha to an
isolated place. She had then began to think herself superior to other
Gopis. So at one place, she said: "O Lord, I can't walk now. My tender
feet are tired. Kindly carry me on your shoulders to wherever you wish."
At her request, Lord Krishna agreed to carry her on his shoulder. But as
soon as she proceeded to ride, Lord disappeared from there also. Now,
Radhaj began to cry and wail and fainted. At the same time, other Gopis
also reached there and found Radha lying unconscious on the ground. All
of them including Radha then returned to the bank of Yamuna and began to
wait for Krishna's appearance.
O Lord, your incarnation has increased the glory of Vrajbhumi. Even the
glory of Vaikunth, goddess Lakshmi herself came to stay in Vraj. Govind
we have dedicated our lives at your feet. Now we are searching you
everywhere. O MadanMohan, kindly show your beautiful, face once.
Prananath, your eyes, that are even more beautiful than the lotus that
bloom in ponds, is pricking our hearts. We are all your slaves. If you
kill us by your separation, will not you be criticised. O Purushottam,
you have protected us on many occasions. You are the remover of miseries
of Vraj people. O Lord, you are not the son of Yashoda only, but you are
the soul of all the living beings. At the request of Brahma, you have
arrived on earth to remove her burden. Why don't you protect us, our
lives are in danger because of your separation.
O Lord, your tales are like ambrosia. Your ambrosial tales pacify those
who are inflicted with mundane obstacles, and sorrows. They are indeed
great and fortunate who recite your tales.
O Purushottam, for the musics of your flute we gave up everything - our
husbands, children, social bindings everything. We even dedicated our
lives for the sake of your love. Now nothing amuses us except you. We
are living, only to have a sight of you; now you are wandering from
forest to forest with your tender feet, which even we did not bear in
our hearts for the fears of hurting them. How much would they be
suffering? We are fainting in your worry. O the dearest one, we were
yours, we are yours and we shall be yours forever." Saying these words
Gopis burst into tears.
Shukdev says: Parikshit, when the beloved Gopis burst into tears,
Krishna's patience gave away. His heart melted at their condition and He
appeared amidst them. A sweet smile played on his beautiful face. He
wore a garland of fresh Vaijayanti flowers and yellow clothes. His
beauty could have moved even Kamadev. Seeing their beloved Kanha once
again amidst them, Gopis got a new lease of life. All of them began to
embrace Lord and thus quench the fire of separation that was burning
Thereafter, along with the beauties of Vraj, Lord came to the bank of
Yamuna. Gopis put their queries before him for solution. Lord said: "O
beloved Gopis, I do not reciprocate to the desire of my beloved ones for
physical love. Because of it their conscience remains always engrossed
in me. Hence, I take to hiding even after meeting so that you could feel
complete imbibement in me.
From the words of the Lord, Gopis forgot the pains of separation. From
the closeness of their beloved, their lives were successful now. With
those Gopis, Lord Krishna started Maharaas on the pious banks of river
Yamuna. All the gods gathered in sky to witness that divine festival.
Gopis were even more fortunate than Lakshmi. But even amidst crores of
Gopis, who were eager to devote their everything to Him, Lord completely
refrained from desires, feelings and even actions. Thus Lord defeated
even Kamadev and removed his ego.
Shukdev says: O Parikshit, once on the occasion of Lord Shivaratri, Nand
Baba and all other Gopas drove their carts with families and reached
Ambikavana on a pilgrimage tour. There they took bath in the river
Saraswati and with devotion worshiped lord Lord Shiva and Parvati. They
also observed day long fast and decided to pass their night on the bank
of Saraswati. But that place was inhabited by a huge python. During the
night: the python emerged and caught hold of Nand's leg. Nandbaba cried
loudly. All the Gopas gathered around him. He cried again: "Kanhaiya,
This snake is all set to strangulate me. Save me."
Lord touched the python with his feet and instaneously, the python
vanished. In its place appeared a divine-looking human. He said: "O
Lord, I was a Vidyadhar named Sudarshan. I was so much obsessed with my
beauty, youth, luxury and comforts that I used to insult others. One day
I had derided at the ugly appearance of the sage Angira. So indignantly
he cursed me to become a python. But, pleased by my realization of
mistake, he had told that when God himself would touch me, I would
regain my original appearance." Thereafter, Sudarshan went round the
God, worshiped Him and with his permission, departed to his abode.
On another occasion, Lord arrived in Vrindavana during Vasant Ritu
(spring Season). There He took part in Vasantik Raas (Raas of spring
season) with the Gopis. During Raas itself, a demon Shankhchur tried to
escape away kidnapping some of the Gopis. A stampede resulted among
Gopis. Hearing their noise, Lord ran after the demon, carrying a huge
Sal (shorea) tree in his hands. In no time He overtook the demon and
killed him by just one blow. He picked up the gem from demon's head and
handed it to Balarama.
Once, Kansa sent a demon Arishtasur to Vrindavana. The demon arrived
there in a bull's guise. That huge bull came to Vrindavana and began to
terrorize the people with his loud sound. Seeing the bull, Balaram said
to Krishna: "Kanhaiya, I have never seen such a huge bull before." All
the people began to cry for help. Lord consoled them and challenged the
bull demon: O fool, why are you terrorizing these cows and cowherds? I
am going to shatter your ego." The challenge from God pinched the demon.
Tapping his hooves angrily, the demon attacked God. He wished to gore
Him, but God held his horns and pushed him back. Then kicking the demon
God killed him in no time.
After the killing of Arishthasur, Devarishi Narad visited Kansa and
asked: "O Kansa, the girl who had slipped form your hand was in fact the
daughter of Yashoda. Krishna and Balaram, who are staying in Vrindavana,
are infact the sons of Devaki and Rohini respectively. Because of your
fear, Vasudev has kept them under the supervision of his friend Nand.
Those two boys have killed the demons sent by you." Hearing these words,
Kansa shook with anger and put Vasudev and Devaki in prison again.
Thereafter he called his minister Akrur and asked him to set out at once
for Gokul. He said to Akrur: "Akrurji, you are an old friend and
well-wisher of mine, Go to Gokul and bring the sons of Vasudev, who are
staying at Nand's home. Invite them to visit Mathura, to witness the
festivities of Dhannsh-yagya." Akrur understood Kansa's intentions, but
feared that if he refused, that demon would kill him. So he decided to
visit Gokul, and also have the oppurtunity of seeing God. He was feeling
overwhelmed by the mere thought of it. Next day, he set out on a grand
chariot to meet his supreme Lord in Gokul.
Meditating in the feet of Lord, Akrur was heading towards Vrindavana. He
was feeling himself as the most fortunate one for he was sure to have a
sight of Lord. Thus obsessed with many kinds of devotional feelings,
Akrur alighted from the chariot at the border of Vrindavana and started
walking. He found it unjust to ride a chariot on the land of Vrindavana
where lord Krishna treaded. By the time, he reached Vrindavana, Lord
Krishna and Balarama had returned home after grazing their cattles.
Seeing them, Akrur fell at their feet. Both the brothers raised Akrur
and addressed him as "Chacha" (uncle),and escorted him into the house.
Akrur was given a warm welcome and treatment there. After the dinner,
they assembled in Nand's drawing room. Nand inquired about the reason of
his sudden arrival. Akrur said: "Kansa is organizing a wrestling
competition in Mathura. He has invited all the big and small kings to
the competitions. He has invited you with Krishna and Balarama as well.
Beautiful Mathura is worth seeing. Gullible Nand felt pleased by Akrur's
talking and said: "King Kansa has shown a great honour to me. He has
sent invitation only to other kings, but has sent his minister to call
me and a golden chariot for my kids." So it was announced in Gokul that
all the people would go to Mathura the next day and witness the
When the Gopis heard about Krishna leaving Gokul to visit Mathura, they
began to wail and cry. They were getting so much restless by the news
that, they felt, their lives would end before the sunrise. They started
imprecating fate that it had no kindness. First it provided them with a
closer contact with their beloved Kanha, now it was causing a long
separation from him. Some of Gopis even begged for death, they felt it
better than living without Kanha. All the Gopis kept on crying and
Mother Yashoda awoke early in the morning next day. She churned out
butter and adding Mishri (sugar candies), she took it to Krishna to feed
him. But there she found that both Krishna and Balarama were getting
ready to set out for Mathura. They held mother's feet and said: "Pardon
us, O mother, we are going to Mathura." These words disturbed Yashoda.
She ran and fell at Akrur's feet and said: "I am your slave. O Akrur,
please do not take my beloved sons to Mathura. They are inseparable from
my heart. Why Kansa has summoned them to Mathura. O Akrur, go and tell
him to take everything from us, but spare our sons. We are also ready to
live in jail, but can't lose our beloved sons." Akrur consoled Yashoda.
"Bhabhi (sister-in-law), don't worry. These two brothers are going to
Mathura to witness the festivities there and will return soon to comfort
your heart." Yashoda said: "Akrurji, Mathura is a town of gold and both
of my sons are too young yet to be needed there for any reason."
Touching the feet of Nand and Yashoda, both the brothers said: "Father,
mother, we will definitely return. Presently we wish to see the grandeur
of Mathura." Meanwhile all the Gopis and Gopas had gathered there.
Crying and wailing, the Gopis said: "You are very Cruel, O Akrur, who
named you as Akrur. You have come here to lacerate our hearts." Second
Gopi said: "No friend, it is not a fault of Akrur. Our complaints are
with Shyamsundar. We left everything, our husbands, children, our homes
and dedicated our entire selves in your service. And now you are
deserting us so ruthlessly. We have no support for our life except you,
O Madhusadan." Saying this, all the Gopis burst into tears again.
All the Gopas, including Shridama surrounded the chariot and said: "O
Krishna we had not even dreamt that you would desert us so ruthlessly. O
Kanhaiya we have seen with our eyes that even Indra, Varuna, Sanakadi
and Brahma bow before you. But we have never regarded you as God. We
regarded you as our friend. Are you angry with us? O my childhood friend
Kanhaiya, we request you, we will never abuse you in future. If you were
intending to go, why did you, then save us from the infernal forest
fire. Why did you save from the deluging rains? We cannot live without
you. Tell us O benevolent friend, When will you return." Lord Krishna
consoled them all and took many of them with Him. The chariot began to
move. As long as the flag of the chariot remained visible, people kept
on crying and wailing. Even the eyes of Akrur filled with tears. Lord
asked him: "Kaka, why are you weeping?" Akrur replied: "O Lord, Kansa is
the great sinner. I feel he will try to torment you by all means. So, my
heart says, that I should take you back to Vrindavana, because if Kansa
did any harm to you, their spirits will curse me for ever."
Hearing Akrur's words, Lord understood that when he had arrived in Vraj,
he was afflicted with a feeling of majesty. But now, it has been
replaced by affection now. He, therefore decided to remove his dilemma.
Thus, Lord said to him: "Kaka, Mathura is still some distance away. So
you take a bath in Yamuna. We brothers are waiting for you in the
As soon as Akrur took a dip in Yamuna, Lord showed him a sight of His
abode Vaikunth and his Narayana's appearance in which, he was holding
conch, wheel, mace and lotus in each of his four hands and was lying on
the bed of Sheshnaga. With folded hands, Akrur prayed to lord: "O lord,
you are the reason for the existence of Brahma and the Universe. O Lord,
I pray at your feet again and again. Now I recognise you. You are the
one who took the incarnations of Matsya, Kachchap, Varah, Narsinh,
Vamana, Rama etc. Thus after bath and worship, Akrur returned to the
chariot. Lord Krishna understood that now a devotional feeling had
arisen in the mind of Akrur for Narayana. Lord asked: "Your condition
seems miserable. Did you see anything extra-ordinary under water?" Akrur
said: "O Lord, now bestow your grace on me. Kindly come to my home and
accept my hospitality."
After the departure of Akrur, Nandbaba too set out for Mathura along
with the Gopas. On the way itself, they caught up with Krishna and
Balaram. All of them then reached Mathura together. There they stayed in
a garden. After sometime, with Nand's permission, both the brothers set
out to see the city of Mathura. Mathura was indeed a beautiful town. All
the residents of Mathura thronged on roads, roofs and attices to have a
sight of Krishna and Balrama.
On the way, they met a pretty but hunched women. She introduced herself
as Kubja, the maid of Kansa. Her duty was to smear the members of the
royal family with sandal-wood paste. God asked her if she would smear
him with sandal paste. Kubja said: "O ManMohan, I see no one more
fitting than you for the sandal paste." Thus she smeared Lord's forehead
with saffron. On Dau's forehead she smeared musk containing sandal
paste, other Gopas smeared all the remaining sandal paste on their
Lord then, put His feet on Kubja's and holding her chin gave her head a
slight jerk. And in no time, Kubja's hunch was gone and she turned into
a pretty woman. She begged lord for His love. The Lord promised her a
meeting in future, and proceeded ahead.
After salving Kubja, Lord Krishna and other Gopas moved ahead. At a
place they saw a huge bow kept on a high stage. Many strong men were
guarding it. Lord entered the canopy and easily lifted the bow and broke
it into pieces. There was a big applause from all around. Dau said:
"Krishna, now the crowd will increase here, so let us escape in time.
Thus, both the brothers and their friends beat a retreat to their camp.
There they rested for night. There in Mathura, breaking of the bow had
frightened Kansa. He could not sleep during the night. Even in his
dreams, he saw nothing, but Krishna everywhere around him.
Early in the morning, Kansa summoned his minister and ordered him to
make Kuvalayapeed, the elephant to stand in the centre of the main gate.
He thought that the elephant would kill both the boys if they dared to
enter the fort through main gate. Back there in the garden, Krishna and
Balarama set out in wrestlers guise for the fort. At the gate, seein an
elephant blocking the passage, they asked mahout loudly: "O Mahout, why
have you made the elephant stand in the centre of the gate. Move it
either ahead or back." But instead of moving the elephant out of the
passage, the mahout steered it right on them. But before elephant could
attack them, Balarama caught its trunk, while Krishna caught its tail.
Both the brothers then dragged the elephant out of the gate and lofted
it in the air. The elephant fell on the ground with a loud thud and died
on the spot.
Kansa felt very nervous by the news of elephant's killing. Before he
could take stock of the situation, Lord Krishna and Balaram arrived in
the amphi- theatre. The spectators present in the amphitheatre saw Lord
as per their feelings. The menfolk saw Lord as a Jewel among the men.
Womenfolk saw him as an incarnation of Kamadev. Cowherds saw their
natural friend in Lord, while to Kansa He appeared as his death. But to
his mother and father, Devaki and Vasudev and to Nand, Krishna and
Balarama appeared as small kids. Sages and ascetics saw nothing but
metaphysical coming in boys' guise. Learned ones sighted His cosmic form
while to Yadavas He appeared as their tutelery God.
As soon as the Lord and Balarama arrived in the ring, the wrestlers, who
were already present there, stood up like springs. A wrestler Chanur
dragged Krishna and one named Mushtik dragged Balarama into the ring.
They said to them: "Both of you and we are the subjects of the great
king Kansa. It is our duty to please our king with our art and skill.
More over we will receive many rewards also."
Krishna said: "O wrestlers, you please fight among yourselves. We are
boys yet, so we shall witness your fight from a distance." Chanur said:
"No you are neither boy nor teenagers. You are stronger than the
strongest. You have just killed an elephant which was stronger than
thousand elephants." Thus, both the brothers were compelled to wrestle
with the royal wrestlers. Mushtik was beaten on the ground by Balarama
so hard that he died at once on the spot. Krishna similarly killed
second wrestler Chanur. All the remaining wrestlers met similar fate one
by one. The massive crowd present there applauded them joyfully.
Seeing the shameful defeat of his wrestlers, Kansa infuriated with anger
and proclaimed: "Tie all the opponents; tie Ugarsen, Devaki, Vasudev,
Nand in ropes and bring them before me." Lord Krishna could not tolerate
this and in a single jump, He reached on the stage where Kansa was
present. Lord Krishna caught him by hair and said: "O Kansa, once you
have caught a helpless woman by hair, I have avenged that insult. Now
you will receive the fruits for your atrocities." Saying this, Lord
began to twirl Kansa catching him by hair, and threw him down from the
stage. Then Lord jumped once again and landed on the chest of Kansa.
Kansa died instantaneously. Thus, Kansa who was an incarnation of the
demon Kalnemi received salvation. Lord Krishna then, released his
parents from the prison and crowned his maternal grand father Ugrasen as
the king of Mathura.
After the successful completion of all the royal ceremonies, the
consecration of Krishna and Balarama was carried out. Thereafter, they
came to stay at the hermitage of sage Sandipani for formal education.
Extraordinarily brilliant Krishna successfully learned all the knowledge
in short period of time. Then, as Gurudakshina (paying respect to the
teacher) Krishna brought back his dead sons from the abode of Yamaraj.
Taking his convocational bath, thereafter, Lord Krishna returned to
Mathura. There, though living among royal luxuries and grandeur Lord
Krishna remained indifferent. Memory of his sentimental, beloved
devotees friend and other people of Vraj kept on pricking him.
Savant Uddhav, the son of Yadava's minister Brihaspati was an intimate
friend of Lord Krishna. Only he had the permission to enter Lord's
sanctum. Seeing his friend Krishna in remorse, Uddhav asked:
"Mathuranath, you seem to be upset. What is troubling you?" Lord Krishna
replied: "Uddhava, I feel perplexed. I remember my days in Vrindavana.
Please go to Vrindavana and get the news regarding Gopis there. Also
give them my message." Thus Lord Krishna donned Uddhav in his attire and
sent him to Vraj in his chariot.
There he stayed at Nand's home. At night, Uddhav enquired about Nand and
Yashoda's well being and about Vraj in general. That whole might passed
Next day, when the Gopis got the news of Uddhav's arrival, they thronged
in and around Nand's residence. They recognized the chariot parked in
front of the gate. It was the same chariot on which Krishna and Balarama
had departed for Mathura. First they thought that their beloved Krishna
had returned. But their belief did not last long. Some of them opined
that Akrur might have come again. But what for?
But then someone informed that it was Uddhav, Krishna's Savant friend,
who had come to preach them about metaphysical knowledge. Soon
afterwards, Uddhav came out and spoke out loud: "O Gopis, listen to the
preaching of Uddhav." But instead of listening to him, Gopis covered
their ears. Feeling insulted, Uddhav expressed his dissatisfaction over
their behaviour. Gopis said to him: O gentleman, firstly we are not
familiar with you, secondly we have no capacity to hear your preaching.
Yes if you wish to give us a message of our most beloved; thousand of
ears are eager to hear that." Uddhav then introduced himself as the
intimate friend of Lord Krishna.
Knowing his identify Gopis welcome and treated Uddhav warmly. Uddhav
then began to say again: "O Gopis, the person, whom you are declaring as
your beloved friend, in fact has no mother, no father. He has no form,
no colour and no body. He is above all, non-existing all pervasive and
the giver of joy. He is never separate from his devotee and beloved
ones. All of you, too, feel the presence of that Supreme Being and be
happy forever." Gopis said: "Uddhav, as long as Ghanashyam stayed with
us, we saw endless virtues in him. But only within six months of his
stay in Mathura, you wiped out all of his virtues and turned him
Tell us with which mouth did he eat butter, with which hand did he break
our pitchers, with which feet did he pasture cows in the forests and
with which feet did he dance on the hood of Kaliy. Was he another
Harsh reaction of the Gopis startled Uddhav. He began to think where he
had been caught. His knowledge of Vedant was proving ineffective on the
Gopis. Who are sunk in so much love. On the other hand, Gopis too were
feeling embarassed for treating the guest bitterly. But they were also
not prepared to listen to such preaching that condemned love. Moreover,
they had let out their long accumulating feeling.
Meanwhile a bumblebee perched at Radha's feet mistaking them for lotus.
Pointing to it, all the Gopis said: "Beware O bumblebee, beware if you
dare to touch the feet of our Radha. It appears that you are a disciple
of Krishna. There is now no secret regarding the virtues and actions of
your friend. But it is good that he and you tied in friendship. You are
black and your friend has a black heart. Virtues of both of you are
First He imbibed us in His love; then left us ruthlessly forever. He is
not sorry for us. But why does Lakshmi serves in those feet? She must be
careful, lest she should be deceived like us. O bumblebee you also
appear to be a polymath who has come here to preach us. But you won't
get an audience in Braj. You should better go to Mathura.
There is one Kubja go and relate your tale to her. You will receive
ample donations from her. What will you get from the Gopis here? They
have already lost their mental balance, because of their separation from
the beloved Krishna. If you have come to ask, why we loved Krishna. O
bumblebee, we have no knowledge. But we know that our love for Krishna
was not a mistake. Even the goddess Lakshmi does not leave His feet for
a moment. Why should we leave his feet then? But O bumblebee, have you
really come to convince us. When He could not come out of shame, He sent
you to console us - the deaf and dumb Gopis, But be careful if you put
your head at the feet of Radha.
Get away, we have already seen enough of flattery and flirtation of your
friend. Deserting our affection for ephemeral things, we loved that
eternal one. but He too abandoned us. Can you guess about our condition?
Tell us, O Uddhav, shall we ever get the sight of Shri Krishna again?
Hearing the tragic tale of the Gopis, Uddhav too felt very sorry for
them. He felt as if Mathuranath, lord Krishna was indeed neglecting
those Gopis. Uddhav stayed in Vrindavana for six months. There he saw
every place, every spot where lord Krishna had played once. When he was
returning to Mathura, mother Yashoda presented him with butter, Radha
gave him the flute. Thus immersed in the love and overwhelmed by its
feelings, Uddhav reached Mathura. He said to Krishna: "Lord, the real
appearance of love, that I saw in Vrindavana is the only truth." Shri
Krishna said: "Uddhav, You are weeping. Just look at me." Uddhav looked
at him with wide, opened eyes. In every single hair of Lord, there
existed Gopis. Uddhav was indeed a Savant. But Lord had sent him to Braj
only to be taught a lesson of love.
After the death of Kansa his widowed queens Asti and Prapti returned to
their father Jarasandh's home and informed him that Krishna and Balarama
had killed their husband Kansa. Infuriated by the news, Jarasandh at
once launched a massive attack on Mathura. The people of Mathura were
frightened by the strength of Jarasandh's army. Lord Krishna too fell in
deep thought. Just then, divine weapons and chariots appeared from the
heaven. Both the brothers took the weapons and boarded their chariots.
Then they fought a fierce battle and slayed all the army of Jarasandh.
Balarama furiously caught Jarasandh and was about to kill him. But Lord
Krishna stopped him. They then released Jarasandh and let him go unhurt.
Jarasandh felt ashamed that Krishna released him because of his helpless
Shukdev says: O Parikshit, despite his shameful defeat, Jarasandh
attacked Mathura seventeen times with huge armies. But every time, the
Lord defeated him and released him in kindness. And every time Jarasandh
felt more humiliated."
At last, instead of attacking Mathura himself, Jarasandh sent Kalyavan
to defeat Shri Krishna. Kalyavan launched an attack on Mathura with one
crore strong Malechchh army. This time Lord Krishna decided to vacate
Mathura instead of countering the attack.
He got Dwarikapuri constructed by Vishvakarma and settled all the people
of Mathura there. Then, unarmed, Lord Krishna walked past Kalyavan.
Pointed by Narad, Kalyavan at once recognised Krishna and gave Him a
chase. He also challenged Him, but the Lord did not listen to his
challenges and kept moving with face turned away. Kalyavan chased Him
for long, but could not catch up.
Ultimately the Lord entered a cave. Kalyavan too followed Him into the
cave. In the cave the Lord saw that someone was sleeping there. So He
covered the man with his yellow length of cloth and himself hid inside
the cave. Kalyavan too arrived there and saw the sleeping man. He
mistook him for God and said: "Krishna, you might have thought that
braves do not attack on sleeping people. So I will first wake you up and
then kill you." Saying thus Kalyavan kicked the sleeping man hard.
However, as soon as the man awakened and glanced at Kalyavan, Kalyavan
got incinerated at once.
Parikshit asked: "Gurudev, who was that sleeping man?"
Shukdev says: "O king, that sleeping man was Muchkund, the son of the
king Mandhata. The gods had sought his assistance in their war against
the demon during the Satyayug. With Muchkund's help,the gods had
defeated the demons and thus pleased had asked him to seek a boon.
Muchkund then had sought a boon of seeing God in tangible form. The gods
had assured him that he would have a sight of God in Dwapar Yuga. Since
Dwapar Yuga was still far away, so Muchkund had asked: "What should I do
till then?" The gods asked him to sleep somewhere and blessed him with a
boon that whoever waked him up would be incinerated at once, by his
glance. Thus, in order to get Kalyavan incinerated and show Muchkund
with his Divine form, Lord had gone to that spot where Muchkund was
Muchkund got the sight of God in Chaturbhuj form; and seeked a boon of
continuous devotion for three births. Thus, Lord defeated Malechchh army
and captured all their wealth. He also defeated Jarasandha and caused
great joy for the people of Dwaraka.
The king of Anart, Raiwat got his daughter Rewati married to Balarama
with the blessing of Brahma.
Shukdev said: "O Parikshit, Bheeshmak was the king of Vidarbh. He had
five sons and a daughter Rukmani. Rukmi, the eldest son of Bheeshmak,
had fixed his sister's engagement with Shishupal, the prince of Chaidi.
Narada did not like this development. He went to Kundanpur, the capital
of Vidarbh and said in the court of Bheeshmak: O King, I am coming from
Dwaraka." Bheeshmak said! "O great Sage, I have never heard about any
city named Dwaraka". Thus, in the court of Bheeshmak, Narad narrated
about the life of Lord Krishna and the grandeur of Dwaraka. Bheeshmak
heard the tale with full attention. His daughter Rukmani too enjoyed the
But Rukmi had a strong opposition against lord Krishna. Ignoring the
wish of his father, he was not ready to get his sister married to Lord
Krishna. On the appointed day, Shishupal appeared there, in a
procession, to get married with Rukmani.
But Rukmani was determined to marry Lord Krishna. She sent a love letter
to Krishna through a loyal Brahmin and declared a fast unto death. Lord
Krishna read her letter, which said: "O Trilokkinath, since the moment,
these ears have heard about your virtues, actions, character and plays,
my soul experiences divine peace. O Achyut, my mind is dedicated in your
feet. O great among the men, this Rukmani has dedicated herself in your
feet. Now it is upto you to see that no jackal could take away the
lion's share." The Brahmin, the carrier of the letter, returned to
Kundanpur with an assurance from the Lord. Lord too called the
charioteer and set out at once for Kundanpur. There in Kundanpur,
Rukmani after getting the assurance from the Brahmin, was thus waiting
for Lord's arrival.
Preparations for Rukmani's marriage with Shisupal were on with full
swing in Kundanpur. All the houses, streets and lanes were cleaned and
sprinkled with scented water. All the men and women folk donned new
clothes and ornaments. King Bheeshmak worshipped his ancestors and gods
and welcomed the Brahmins liberally. Extremely beautiful princess
Rukmani was given ceremonial bath and donned with auspicious clothes and
The king of Chedi, Damaghosh got the auspicious rites for the marriage
of his son Shishupal, performed by Brahmins. All the Baratis (people in
marriage procession) were given grand reception. Many great kings like
Shalv, Jarasandh, Dantvaktra, Vidurath and Paundruk were present in the
marriage procession. They had come with their armies with an intention
of fighting Krishna and Balarama. After Krishna's departure, Balarama
too set out for Kundanpur with chaturangini (with four wings) army, for
he had known about their opponents' preparedness.
Rukmani was eagerly awaiting Lord's arrival. She had received the news
that Dwarakanath (Krishna) had resolved to take her away. She was
feeling overwhelmed in her heart.
Seeing Lord Krishna arrived intently in the marriage ceremonies of his
daughter, king Bheeshmak welcomed him. Seeing him, even the common
people of Vidarbh prayed "May our princess Rukmani get Shri Krishna as
her husband. At the same time, Rukmani emerged from her palace to go to
the temple of Ambikadevi, soldiers were guarding her. In the temple,
Rukmani prayed peacefully: "O Mother Ambika I greet you and Ganapati,
who is sitting in your lap. I seek your blessing that may my wish be
fulfilled and may I receive Shri Krishna as my husband."
On her way back, Rukmani was walking very slowly for she was awaiting
Lord's arrival, which was due in any moment. Just then, Lord Krishna
appeared before her. Before she could ride her chariot Lord lifted her
from amidst the crowd. And in the presence of hundrerds of kings,
Krishna and Balarama eloped away with Rukmani.
Hearing the news that Krishna has eloped with Rukmani, Rukmi and all
other kings present there boiled with anger. Accompanied by their huge
armies, they decided to give them a chase. Thus chased my them,
Yadnvanishis stopped and encountered the kings boldly. With a true
ambition to win, brave Yadav soldiers defeated the enemeies. All the
kings like Jarasandh fled for their lives. Rukmi had resolved that
without getting Rukmani released from Krishna's captivity, he would not
show his face in Kundanpur. He chased Lord Krishna for long. But
Dwarakanath defeated him and got his head shaved.
Thus defeating all the kings, Lord Krishna brought Rukmani to Dwaraka.
There they got married formally. All the people of Dwaraka celebrated
festivities for many days. People presented them with lot of precious
gifts. All the people were in great joy to see Lakshmi as Rukmani with
her husband Lord Krishna.
Shukdev says: O Parikshit, Kamadev was a part of lord himself. After
getting incinerated by Rudra, Kamadev took refuge in the supreme lord to
get an incarnation once more. Thus, Kamadev was born as Rukmani,s first
But just after his birth, Pradyumn was kidnapped by a demon Shambarasur.
The demon dropped the baby into the sea, where a huge fish swallowed him
in whole. Coincidently the fish was caught by the fishers and presented
to the kitchen of Shambarasur. When the cooks cut the fish open, an
extremely beautiful baby emerged. Mayawati, the governess of the
kitchen, felt overjoyed to see the baby. She began to rear the baby with
love and affection.
Once Narad arrived in the kitchen and said: "Mayawati, do you know who
is in your lap? " "No, O Devarishi, I found him from the belly of a
fish" said Mayawati. Devarishi Narad said: "He is your husband Kamadev
and you are his wife Rati. In this birth, he has appeared as Pradyumn
the son of Krishna. Hearing this, Mayawati saluted Narad with respect.
Since then she regarded Pradyumn as her husband and served him
accordingly. When Pradyumn matured. Mayawati reminded him about his real
appearance. Pradyumn, thereafter, killed Shambarasur and got married
with Mayawati. Then the couple arrived in Dwaraka.
A person named Satrajit was a great devotee of Lord Suryanarayana.
Pleased by his devotion, Suryadev presented him a gem called Syamantak.
The gem had a radiance equal to the sun. Bearing that gem, Satrajit
arrived in Lord's court. By the radiance of his gem, all the people and
the courtiers mistook him for Suryadeva and stood in his regard. But the
Lord recognised him and asked his coutiers to be calm. Then to Satrajit,
Lord Said: "Satrajit, your gem is really very beautiful. Nana (maternal
grandfather) Ugrasen is the king of this region. If you present this gem
to him, it will be very good. But Satrajit refused to present that gem.
One day, later on, Satrajit's brother Prasenjit went hunting, wearing
the gem in his neck. In the forest a lion killed him and snatched the
gem. The lion was in turn killed by the Ursine king Jambvan. Jambvan
took the gem to his cave and gave it to his children to play with. When
Prasenjit did not return from hunting, Satrajit felt sorry and accused
Krishna that He had killed his brother for the gem.
When lord Krishna heard that he was being blamed for the mishap, He
himself went to the forests. There he found the dead body of Prasenjit,
but there was no sign of gem around the cadaver. He found only
footprints of a lion leaving from there. Following the footprints, He
discovered the dead lion and the foot prints of a great bear. Following
the footprints, He reached in the cave where Jambvan's daughter Jambvati
was playing with the gem.
As soon as lord Krishna proceeded to take the gem, Jambvan arrived. A
fierce duel resulted between them. They continued to fight for
twenty-six days without truce. On the twenty-seventh day Jambvan
requested Lord! "Please wait O Lord." Lord said: "Do you want to take
rest?" "No", said Jambvan, "I have recognised you. You are non other
than Lord Narayana Himself. Nobody else has the power to defeat me."
Lord appeared before Jambvan as Shri Rama. Jambvan prayed and worshipped
Him. He was feeling guilty that he dared to fight Lord. Lord said that
He had arrived there for the gem only. Jambvan gave him the gem and also
his daughter Jambvati. Lord returned the gem to Satrajit and married
Lord summoned Satrajit to his court and in the presence of the king
Ugrasen, related the sequence of incidents that took place in the
jungle. Satrajit felt ashamed. With a feeling of repentance he took the
gem. He was getting afraid also that he made enemity with lord Krishna
without reason. Hence to expiate his crime, Satrajit thought of
presenting the gem Syamantak and his daughter Satyabhama to Lord
Krishna. Lord Krishna accepted Satybhama as his wife but returned the
gem to Satrajit saying: "It is a gift of lord Suryadev. Keep it with
you. You are required to deposit the gold that you get from it, in the
Akrur and Kritvarma were not pleased with the marriage of Satyabhama. So
they got Satrajit killed by Shatdanva. Shatdanva killed Satrajit in his
sleep and absconded with the gem. Lord Krishna was then away in
Hastinapur. Satyabhama too reached there and informed Krishna about her
father's assassination. With Balarama, Lord Krishna chased Shatdhanva.
But even after killing him, they could not trace the gem. Shatdhanva had
given the gem to Akrur to keep till his return. But after the death of
Shatdhanva, frightened Akrur came to stay in Kashi. From the effect of
the gem Akrur performed many grand Yagyas there. Lord summoned Akrur
from Kashi. After welcoming and treating him in the court, Lord asked
him about the gem. Akrur showed the gem in the court. But Lord returned
the gem to Akrur.
Other marriages of Lord Krshna:
Once Lord Krishna visited Indraprasth to see Pandavas there. There
riding a chariot with Arjuna, He came to the forests. On the bank of
river Yamuna a pretty woman was observing penance. By the instinct of
God, Arjun drew near her and asked for her identity. She said: "I am
Kalindi, the daughter of Suryadev. I am penancing here in order to get
married with Lord Krishna." Lord got Kalindi boarded on the chariot and
got married to her formally.
Mitrvinda was the sister of Vind Anuvind the king of Ujjain. She had a
desire to get Lord as her husband. But her brother, Vind Anuvind was a
follower of Duryodhan. So he stopped his sister Mitrvinda from getting
married to Krishna. But Krishna eloped with Mitrvinda from the his court
and got married to her formally later on.
Satya was the daughter of Nagnjit, the king of Kaushal. She was
extremely beautiful lady. The king had resolved that he would marry his
daughter only to him who would defeat his seven most formidable oxen.
Many princes has tried their luck since then but failed. When Lord
Krishna heard about that, He reached Kaushal with his army. The king of
Kaushal welcomed and treated him well, and told him about his
resolution. Lord then took seven guises and in no time defeated his
seven formidable oxen. Gladly the king married his daughter Satya to
Shukdev said: "Parikshit, Lord's aunt (father's sister) Shrutkirti was
married in the kingdom of Kaikauja. Bhadra was the daughter of
Shrutkirti. Bhadra's brothers like Santardan etc. themselves had got
their sister married to Lord Krishna.
Lakshmana was the daughter of the king of Madra. She was very beautiful
and meritorius. Lord abducted her all alone from the Swayamvar organised
for her marriage. Later, Lord married to her formally.
Shukdev said: Parikshit, Prayjyotishpur was the capital of the demon
Bhaumasur. He was very strong and powerful. He had snatched the canopy
of Varuna, ear-rings of Aditi the mother of the gods, and Maniparvat of
the gods on Meru. Apart from these, he had also captured sixteen
thousand and one hundred princesses as well.
Devraj Indra himself visited Dwaraka and Prayed Lord to get them rid of
Bhaumasur's atrocities. With the dear wife Satyabhama and riding his
vehicle Garuda. Lord Krishna arrived in the capital of Bhaumasur. But to
enter Pragjyotishpur was a impossible task. But with the blows of his
mace and arrows, Lord easily broke the hills, destroyed strategic
positions and cut the snares with sword. By his wheel he destroyed the
walls of fire, water and air. With the loud sound of conch, lord
renderered the machines, installed there, useless.
Ultimately, God destroyed the rampart of the citadel. Disturbed by the
noise, the five-headed demon Mur ran with a trident to kill God. But
with a single shot of his arrow, Lord broke his trident and cut his head
with his wheel. Soldiers and commanders of Bhaumasur were also killed.
Bhaumasur then came himself to fight. He had donned a shinning crown and
was wearing big earrings. With his wheel, Lord cut the demon's head. As
soon as He beheaded the demon, the gods showered flowers on the Lord and
worshipped Him. Even the mother earth came and put a garland of five
colours around lords neck. She also presented to him the earrings of
Aditi, canopy of Varuna, and a great gem. At the request of earth, Lord
assured Bhaumasur's son Bhagdatt freedom from his fears.
After slaying Bhaumasur, Lord entered his palace. There he released the
sixteen-thousand one-hundred captive princesses. The princesses were
very much impressed by the Lord. They had all accepted in their mind,
Lord Krishna as their husband. Lord too bowed before their love and
accepted them as his wives and arranged to send them to Dwaraka.
Shukdev says: Parikshit, Rukmvati was the daughter of Rukmi, the brother
of Rukmani. When a Swayamvar was organised for her, she saw Pradyumn.
She was so impressed by him that she chose him as her husband. But it
was not acceptable to other princes. They tried to stop their marriage.
But defeating them all, Pradyumn abducted Rukmvati and married her
formally. Then to please his sister Rukmani, Rukmi got his
grand-daughter Rochana married to Rukmani's grandsons Anirudh.
The son of the demon king Bali, Banasur was a great devotee of Lord Lord
Shiva. Banasur ruled over the kingdom Shonitpur. By the grace of Lord
Lord Shiva, he had received thousand arms. Even all the gods including
Indra used to serve him. Thus blinded by his physical strength, Banasur
sought a boon from Lord to meet a match for his strength. Lord Shiva
said: "O fool, your thirst for war shall be quenched when your flag is
Banasur had a daughter named Usha. Once she had a dream in which Anirudh
was making love with her. She was very much perplexed by the dream.
After a few days with the help of her friend Chitralekha, Anirudh
sneaked into her palace. He stay there and enjoyed the company of Usha
for long. But Anirudh's clandestine stay could not remain hidden from
the eyes of Banasura. So he put Anirudh in prison. There in Dwaraka,
everyone was worried by Anirudh's long absence.
It was Narad, who ultimately revealed the fact that Anirudh was in the
prison of Banasur. Hearing the news, Lord Krishna launched an attack on
Banasur. His armies surrounded Shonitpur. During Ghurabandi the flag of
Banasur's palace fell. Lord Shanker arrived to assist Banasur. Lord
Krishna cut all the arms of Banasur. At the request of Lord Shiva, he
left only four of his arms intact. Banasur bowed his head before Lord
Krishna and brought Anirudh and Usha respectfully before Him. With them
Lord Krishna returned to Dwaraka where formal marriage of Usha and
Anirudh took place.
Once, Lord Krishna's sons visited the forests. There they saw a huge
Chameleon fallen in a large, deep well. They tried to pull it out but in
vain. The princes, therefore, returned to the palace and related this
strange episode to Lord Krishna. Lord too came to the well and with His
left hand, easily pulled the Chamelon out.
As soon as the chameleon came out, it turned into a divine god and began
to worship God. He said: "O Lord, I am Nrig. The king Ikshvaku was my
father. In my life, I had donated uncountable numbers of cows to the
Brahmins. But once a cow, donated by me, returned to my cowshed. By
mistake I made a resolution to donate it to another Brahmin. My action
led to a dispute between the two Brahmins, and my wisdom failed to
settle their dispute. Both the Brahmins went away unsatisfied, but I met
this fate after death. Since then, I had been in this well in the form
of a chameleon. Now, by the graceful touch of your hands, O Lord, I have
received salvation." King Nrig then went around the Lord and returned to
his heavenly abode.
Once Balarama and Krishna had gone to Braj to see Nandbaba there.
Meanwhile the king Paundrak of Karush sent an envoy to lord Krishna with
a message that said: 'I am Lord Vasudev.' Pandrak's envoy arrived in the
court and read out the message: "To bestow my grace on the people, I
have taken an incarnation. You have falsely named yourself as Vasudev
and bore my insignia. Take my refuge or face the battle."
Shukdev said: Parikshit, hearing the message of Paundrak, Ugrasen and
other courtiers began to laugh. Lord asked the envoy to inform Paundrak
that He would launch His wheel on him and his army.
Receiving the message Paundrak launched an attack on Dwaraka with two
Akshauhini army. The king of Kashi was a friend of Paundrak. He too came
to his assistance with three Akshauhini armies. Paundrak had disguised
as Vasudev and was bearing artifical conch, wheel, mace and lotus and.
He had also adorned Swastik, Kaustubh etc. All the people began to laugh
at Paundrak's clown like attire.
In no time, the Lord stripped him of all his adornments. His wheel cut
his head. Then with an arrow the Lord cut the head of the king of Kashi.
His head fell in front of his palace's gate. Sudakshin, the son of the
Kashi king, organised a grand Yagya to avenge his father's killing. An
ogress, Kritya emerged from the Yagya and began to burn Dwaraka. All the
people prayed Krishna to protect them. Lord assured them to be fearless
and ordered His wheel Sudarshan to kill Kritya. Sudarshan extinguished
the fire, killed Kritya and destroyed Kashi. Then it returned to the
The king Parikshit expressed his desire to hear about the life of
Balarama. Shukdev said:, "O king, there was once a monkey named Dwivid.
He was the friend of Bhaumasur. When Dwivid heard about Bhaumasur's
killing by Shri Krishna, he began to cause large scale destruction in
the kingdom. His disruptive activities in the country began to terrorize
the subjects of Lord Krishna. Once hearing sweet music, the monkey was
drawn towards the Raivtak mountain. There he saw Balarama amidst
beautiful young women. The monkey began to behave indecently. Angered by
his indecency, Balarama hit him with his pestel, named Sunand, and
killed the monkey.
Samb was the son of lord Krishna and born to Jambvati. He had Kidnapped
Lakshmana, the daughter of Duryodhana from her Swayamvar. Infuriated
Kauravas chased them and, with difficulty, they caught Samb and tied
him. When the Yaduvanshis got the news, they began preparations to
launch an attack on Kauravas. Balarama pacified them and reached
Hastinapur alone. There he received a warm welcome from the Kauravas.
Balarama said to them: "It is an order of the king Ugrasen that you
should see Samb off with his newly wedded wife." Hearing Balarama's
words Kauravas got angry and began to deride Yaduvanshis. Infuriated by
Kauravas derisions, Balarama trained his pestle and plough. He intended
to turn over the town of Hastinapur into the river Yamuna. When the city
began to shake, Kauravas felt perplexed and begged Balarama for his
pardon. Balarama assured them to be fearless and returned to Dwaraka
with Samb and his newly wedded wife Lakshmana.
Shukdev says: "Parikshit, once Lord Krishna was holding His court when
an emissary arrived in the court. The kings who were held captive
forcibly by Jarasandh had sent him. The emissary related the miseries of
those kings to Lord Krishna. Through the emissary, the kings had
requested: "O Lord of the world, Kindly get us free from our miseries.
We are in your refuge. We desire your sight. Kindly bestow us with your
grace." Lord Krishna sent the emissary off with assurance of timely
Meanwhile, Devarishi Narad arrived in the court and informed the Lord of
Yudhisthir's intention to organise a grand Rajsuy Yagya and his cordial
invitation for the Lord to attend the ceremony. Lord asked his friend
Uddhav for an advice as to where He ought to go first - to Indraprastha
in Rajsuy Yagya or to liberate the king from the captivity of Jarasandh.
Uddhav advised Lord to go to Indraprastha first. There He would be able
to serve both the purposes.
Uddhav's advise was in the interest of all. Everyone supported it.
Taking permission from His priest and teachers, Lord set out on a
chariot with the whole family to reach Indraprastha. In Indraprastha,
Pandavas accorded the Lord with warm-hearted felicitations. By the
dictate of Lord, Mayasur built a divine looking court for Yudhishthir.
The courtroom was a marvellous piece of architecture. The shinning,
smooth, floor of it appeared like water, while water bodies presented a
look like marble floors.
During Yudhishthir's Rajsuy Yagya, all the Pandavas set out in all the
directions to conquer the kings and expand the boundaries of their
kingdom. Warriors like Bheem, Arjun defeated great kings all around and
extended the boundaries of Yudhisthir's empire. But to defeat Jarasandh,
- Bheema, Arjuna and Lord Krishna went in the guise Brahmins. They
reached Jarasandh capital Girivraj and prayed him for donations.
Jarasandh promised to give them the things of their desires. Lord
Krishna then introduced themselves and begged Jarasandh for a duel with
any of them. Jarasandh accepted to fight a duel with Bheema. He gave
Bheema a mace and both of them came out to the outskirts of the town,
where they began their duel. Both of them were equally strong and
equally brave and well pitted.
Twenty-seven days passed, but their duel remained inconclusive. On the
twenty-eighth day, during the fight, Lord signaled Bheema a way to kill
Jarasandh. He took a small twig in his hands and tore it apart into two.
Bheema understood the signal and beating Jarasandh on ground, he tore
him apart in two pieces and threw them in opposite directions. Thus came
the end of evil Jarasandh. Lord Krishna and Arjuna heartily greeted
Bheema for his success. They then enthroned Jarasandh's son Sahdev and
also got the captive kings released.
King Yudhishthir had invited great vedic Brahmins and Acharayas on the
occasion. Those great Sages included Ved Vyas, Bhardwaj, Sumantu,
Gautam, Asit, Vashishth, Chyvan, Kanv, Maitrey, Kavash, Chit,
Vishvamitra, Vamdev, Sumati, Jemini, Kratu, Pail, Parashurama,
Shukracharya, Asuri, Vitihotra, Madhuchchanda, Veersen and Akritvarn
etc. Persons from Kauravas side like Drona, Bheeshma, Kripacharya,
Dhritrashtra, Vidhur and Duryodhan etc. were too invited to witness the
celebrations. Even Brahma, Shiv, Indra, Gandharvas, Vidyadhars had too
arrived. But before the Yagya could start a dispute cropped up among the
great sages as to who ought to be worshipped first in the Yagya.
In the opinion of Sahdeva (youngest of the Pandava brothers, not the son
of Jarasandh), Lord Krishna deserved the first worship. Every one
supported him. Only Shishupal could not tolerate the decision. He stood
up and said: "In the presence of such great ascetics, savants, polymaths
and sages, how can this cowherd deserve the first worship." Despite
Shishupal bitter remarks Lord Krishna kept quiet. But Shishupal did not.
Encouraged by Lord's silence he began to attack the kings, who stood by
Lord's side, with sword. He was simultaneously abusing Lord Krishna
also. Lord had assured Shishupal of this forgiveness for up to one
hundred sins. But now Shishupal's sins have crossed that permitted
number. So, quieting all, Lord cut his head with His wheel. As soon as
the dead body of Shishupal fell on the ground, a flame emerged from it
and merged with Lord Krishna. Shukdev says: "O Parikshit, feelings of
hostility had been accumulating in the heart of Shishupal for his past
three births against Lord Krishna. It was because of these intense
hostile feelings that Shishupal met salvation eventually.
After the salvation of Shishupal, ceremonies and rituals of Yagya
proceeded unabated. At the end king Yudhishthir presented all those
present there with fitting gifts and took ceremonial bath. At the
request of Pandavas, lord Krishna stayed in Indraprastha for many
Shukdev says: "Parikshit, now listen to the tale of how Lord caused
salvation for Shalv. Shalv was the childhood friend of Shishupal and had
attended the marriage of Rukmani as a member of Shishupal's wedding
party. At that time, Yaduvanshis had defeated them all including
Jarasandh and Shalv. Right at that moment, Shalv had resolved to destroy
Yaduvanshis and began worshipping Gods of the gods Pashupati (Shiv).
Lord Ashutosh Lord Shiva was pleased with him. As a boon, Shalv had got
an aeroplane that was invincible even for the gods, demons, humans,
nagas, etc and was particularly formidable for Yaduvanshis. By the
dictate of Lord Lord Shiva, the demon Maya constructed such an aeroplane
of iron. The aeroplane named Saubh was as big as a city and was
difficult to be spotted or caught. It could move as fast as one's
wishes. Soon after getting the aeroplane, Shalv launched an attack of
Surrounding Dwaraka, Shalv began to destroy buildings and houses there.
Seeing the people terrorized, Pradyumn consoled them to be fearless and
himself set out on a chariot to counter Shalv. He pierced Shalv with
arrows. But Shalv's minister Dyumana attacked Pradyumn with a mace. By
the blow of the mace, Pradyumn lost his consciousness. But soon he came
around and began to slay Shalv's forces. The fierce battle continued for
twenty-seven days. Lord was away then in Indraprastha Yagya. But He was
sure that in his absence Kshatriya kings of Shishupal side would be
attacking on Dwaraka.
Lord reached Dwaraka and saw a fierce battle between Pradyumn and Shalv.
Seeing Lord arrive, Shalv began to attack Him with sharp arrows. Lord
hit Shalv with a powerful blow of mace and he began to spit blood from
his mouth. He then tried to show many illusions and showered Lord with
weapons. But Lord wounded Shalv with his arrows, broke his aeroplane
with his mace. Very soon thereafter the aeroplane plunged in to the sea.
Shalv then attacked Lord with mace but Lord cut his head with Sudarshan
wheel. Seeing his end, all the gods showered flowers on Lord.
After the killing of Shishupal, Shalv etc. Dantvaktra arrived in the
battlefield carrying a mace. When Lord saw him coming, He too jumped
down from the chariot and baulked his movement with a mace. Dantvaktra
tried to humiliate God with his abuses and hit him on head with his
mace. Lord easily bore the blow of mace and hit Dantvaktra's chest with
his mace named Kaumodaki. Dantvaktra's heart tore apart by the blow and
he fell dead.
Vidurath was the brother of Dantvaktra. He came in the field with sword
and shield to avenge his brother's death. Seeing him ready to launch an
attack, Lord cut Vidurath's head with his wheel. Thus, Lord Krishna
entered Dwaraka only after killing Shalv, Dantvaktra and Vidurath. All
the gods and other inhabitants of heaven showered flowers on Him.
During his stay as a disciple at the hermitage of sage Sandipani, Lord
Krishna had a Brahmin friend named Sudama. He was very indifferent in
nature with no desires for the material things. After their education,
Lord Krishna came to Dwaraka while Sudama, who had no any inclination
for accumulating material wealth, got married and began to pass his life
with his wife Susheela abject poverty.
One day his wife Susheela said: "O lord, your friend Krishna is the king
of Dwaraka. He is very benevolent to Brahmins and his devotees. If you
go to see him, he will understand your miseries and grant you a lot of
wealth." But Sudama plainly refused saying: "Devi, I have chosen the
path of devotion for self upliftment and not for the wealth." Susheela,
however, kept of insisting: "All right, don't go for the wealth. But at
least you can go to see your old friend. Sudama accepted this
proposition, thinking that only the sight of Lord yields supreme benefit
to the devotee. But he wanted something as a gift to present to his old
friend. At this, his wife tied four handfuls of raw rice in a bundle.
With that humble gift, Sudama set out for Dwaraka. His poverty was at
its helm. But he kept on reciting Lord's name all along the way. After
walking for some distance, Sudama felt thirsty. He drank water, quenched
his thirst and thanked God that He at least does give water to drink.
Sudama kept on walking the whole day. In the evening, he kept the bundle
of rice under his head as a pillow and slept.
Now it was God's turn to show His gratitude for the devotee. When Sudama
awoke in the morning, he found himself right in front of Lord Krishna's
palace. At first he could not believe his eyes; but the people told him
that he was in Dwaraka and standing right before the lord's palace.
Sudama requested the gatekeeper to inform Lord Krishna that his
childhood friend Sudama had come. Lord Krishna was sitting in the
company of Rukmani when the gatekeeper delivered the message. As soon as
Lord Krishna learned about Sudama's arrival, He stood up and ran
helter-skelter to welcome his childhood friend. At the gate He cordially
embraced Sudama and escorted him into his private chamber and made him
sit on the throne.
Krishna and queen Rukmani both washed Sudama's feet one by one. By the
mere touch of his friend, Krishna was feeling overjoyed. His eyes filled
with tears. He and Sudama were holding each other's hands. Their hearts
were beating with the memories of their period as disciples at the
hermitage of Sandipani. For long, none of them could uttered a word. At
last Sudama said: "O Jagadguru Krishna, I have the fortune of being your
friend. What remains for me to do?"
Lord Krishna said: "Brother, have you brought for me something sent by
my sister-in-law? I love to accept even the pettiest thing presented
Shukdev says: 'O Parikshit, at the Lord's words, Sudama felt ashamed and
he did not reveal the four handfuls of raw rice that he had brought as
gift. With shame, Sudama began to look at the ground. Lord knew
everything that his dear friend Sudama had never remembered him with a
desire for wealth. This time too he has come at the insistence of his
'Hence, I will give him the wealth that is rare even for the gods...'
thought Lord Krishna and snatched the bundle of raw rice and opened it
with great respect. He put one handful of it in his mouth. When Lord
proceeded to take next handful, queen Rukmani held his hand and prayed:
"O Vishvambhar (fosterer of the world) for the prosperity of entire
world this one handful is sufficient."
Sudama stayed that night in the palace of Shri Krishna. There he
experienced the comfort of Vaikunth (abode of God). Staying there for
many days, Sudama at last, took leave of Shri Krishna and set out for
his home. Lord did not give Sudama anything apparently nor did Sudama
asked for His favour. He was travelling overwhelmed by a divine sense of
devotion and felt that Krishna might have not given him wealth lest he
should forget Him.
Thus, sunk in myriad kinds of thoughts, Sudama reached his home. But at
the place, where his dilapidated hut stood once there was now a divine
palace surrounded by verdant gardens. The floors of the palace were
embedded with precious gems and stones. Standing at the gate, Sudama
felt confused, when his wife Susheela came out with scented water to
welcome him. Tears were rolling on her cheeks. With love she greeted
Sudama and escorted him inside the palace. Sudama was still reflecting
over the God's grace and praying: "May I have the friendship of lord in
every birth, may my affection increase for Lord's feet. I don't want
wealth.' Since then, Sudama enjoyed the comforts of the palace as the
bounty of Lord bestowed upon him by non other than the Lord Krishna
himself. His devotion increased day by day.
Shukdev says: "O Parikshit, Lord Krishna was passing his time with
pleasure in Dwaraka. A total solar eclipse happened to fall during that
period. People from all over India thronged in Kurukshetra to take a dip
in sacred Ganges on that great occasion. All the Yaduvanshis too arrived
there. When Vrajvasis (Inhabitants of Vraj) learned about Krishna and
Balarama's arrival in Kurukshetra, they too assembled there.
During the festival, Lord Krishna met His foster-father Nand and other
cowherds who were his childhood friends. Lord Krishna met the Gopis also
who had been pining for his sight since long. They enjoyed the meeting
and kept on chatting for long. Overwhelmed by love and joy, Vasudev
embraced Nand. Lord Krishna and Balarama respectfully greeted mother
Yashoda and father Nand. They too embraced Krishna-Balarama cordially.
Gopis were specially overwhelmed by Lord's sight. They had no other
desire but to have a sight of Lord. That day their long cherished dream
had come true. Gopis imbued the captivating appearance of Lord and
experienced the joy of embracing Him. Lord met all the Gopis and
embraced them. Inquired about their well being and preached them with
spiritual knowledge. By the virtue of that knowledge, feeling of living
disappeared among the Gopis and they merged with God forever.
Devarishi Narad, Vyasa and many other great sages arrived in Kurukshetra
to have a sight of Lord. Lord welcomed them all. Then Vasudev greeted
them and enquired about way for his self up liftment. Laughingly, Narad
said: "Vasudev, a person, already living at the bank of the Ganges,
discards her holy water and goes to other places of pilgrimage for his
In the presence of Krishna-Balarama, the sages said: "You regard the
indescrible, eternal, Sachchidanand Shri Krishna as your son, and seek
the way of your self upliftment from us. O Vasudev, recognise Him. Take
to His refuge, only He can salve you." Vasudev got the meaning of sage's
words and began to develop feelings of devotion for his son. Every human
being has obligation for the gods, sages and his ancestors. The sages
got a Yagya performed in Kurukshetra by Vasudev to free him from the
obligation for gods.
In Dwaraka, Krishna and Balarama used to greet their parent's first
daily in the morning. Now Vasudev had recognised His identity. So after
their return from Kurukshetra, when Krishna-Balarama went as usual to
greet their parents, Vasudev greeted them first. Lord Krishna then
preached his father about the metaphysical knowledge. With that
knowledge, Vasudev began to see Krishna everywhere.
Mother Devaki was also present there. Memory of her six children, who
were killed by Kansa, was still afresh in her mind. She had heard that
Krishna had fetched the dead son of Sandipani from Yamloka. So she
prayed to them " You both are venerable even to the gods. Kindly grant
me my desire. Show me my six sons who were killed by Kansa. By their
mother's dictate and helped by Yogmaya, both the brothers reached Sutal
The demon king Bali welcomed them there and offered them a seat, and
washed their feet. King Bali then asked God what could he do for Him.
Lord said: O demon king, in Swayambhuv Manvantara, six sons were born to
Urna the wife of Prajapati Marichi. They were all gods. They had once
seen Brahma trying to copulate with his own daughter and hence derided
at him. Indignant Brahma had then curse them to take birth in demon
incarnation. They therefore were born as the sons of Hiranykashipu.
In the present era, Yogmaya had made them born as Devaki's sons who were
killed by Kansa. They are all now in your Loka. Mother Devaki is
mourning for them, so we shall take them with us. They will thus be
freed from the curse and go to their heavenly abode." Thus Lord Krishna
and Balarama brought those six babies to Dwaraka and handed them to
mother Devaki. Seeing her babies again, Devaki's heart filled with love
for her sons. Milk began to flood her breast. She breast-fed them.
Drinking the milk, all the babies received salvation. They then departed
to their heavenly abode.
King Parikshit asked: "Gurudev, how did my grandfather Arjun and
grandmother Subhadra got married? I want to hear this tale. Kindly
narrate it to me."
Shukdev said: Parikshit once travelling on a pilgrimage tour, Arjun
reached in Prabhas region. There he learned that Balarama was desirous
of marrying his sister Subhadra to Duryodhan. But Vasudev and Krishna
were not in the favour of this marriage. So, a strong urge took hold in
his mind to get Subhadra as his wife. Acting as per the urge, Arjun
reached Dwaraka in the guise of Vaishnava sage. It was rainy season
then, so with an excuse of Chaturmasya Vrat (four months long fast),
Arjun stayed in Dwaraka. During his stay, Balarama served and looked
after him very well. But neither Balarama nor any other inmates of the
palace could recognise Arjun.
Once Balarama invited Arjun to his home. There he offered good,
delicious food to Arjun. Subhadra too served him well. There, they fell
in love with each other. Later on, boarding a chariot, Subhadra went out
of the palace for a joy ride. At the outskirts of the town, Arjun was
awaiting for her. He had already taken permission of Devaki-Vasudev and
Krishna. Subhadra too had silently nodded her acceptance.
So that evening Arjun and Subhadra eloped from Dwaraka. The news of
Subhadra eolping with Arjun first outraged Balarama. But Lord Krishna
and other near and dear ones convinced and pacified him.
King Parikshit asked: "Brahmin, Brahma is beyond the limit of do's and
why's. He is free from the virtues like Sat, Raja and Tama. He cannot be
seen by mind. On the other hand Guna (Virtues) is the subject of all the
Shrutis (Vedas). How do Vedas then depict Brahma?"
Shukdev says: "Parikshit, Lord is omnipotent and a treasure of all the
virtues. Shrutis (Vedas) do depict Saguna (with virtues) clearly. But
reflect on them deeply and you get virtuesless meaning from them. Once,
Lord Badrinarayana had arrived among the inhabitant sages of Kalaygram.
Devarishi Narad had asked him the same question. In the assembly of the
great sages, Lord then narrated the same tale, which the inhabitants of
Janloka had asked.
The supreme sages like Sanakadi and his brothers were equal in
knowledge, penance etc. Yet they chose Sanandan as the narrator, and
rest three became the audience. Sanandan had said: "Such as the savants
and balladiers sing in praise their king to wake him up in the morning,
similarly annihilating the entire universe in Him, Paramatma (supreme
soul) lies asleep with all His powers. At the end of Pralaya, Vedas
(Shurtis) wake Him up through the words that demonstrate Him."
Shrutis (Vedas) says: "O Ajit (invincible one), you are supreme, no one
can conquer you; may you win everywhere. O Lord, you are complete with
all the luxuries, hence destroy the illusion that allures all the living
beings. We are unable to describe your appearance. But when your powers
manifest in creation. We get some ability to describe you.
Description of Brahma, Indra, Agni, Surya and other gods, by us (Vedas)
appears as separate, The complete universe is not different from you. It
is a description of your various forms. You are unborn, even in those
idols. You do not take birth.
All the Vedas describe your merits. All the savants love none but you
through hearing and remembering of your auspicious, benevolent virtues.
O, endless, if anybody in human incarnations does not recite or remember
your name he is breathing in vain.
Dharma(duty), Arth (Wealth), Kama (Sensual pleasure) and Moksha
(Salvation) have no meaning for those who remember you with pure heart.
O endless, glorious Lord, common people are wandering in abject darkness
of unnecessary disputes. Your realization is impossible. When will that
moment arrive in my life. When I shall recite your names like Madhav,
Vamana, Trilochan, Govind etc. with joy and get free from all the
O Lord, this entire universe is false. But still appears as real. We
pray to that God who is present as an illuminating truth in this false
O Lord of all, people can not sail across this ocean of death without
you, no matter what they do to achieve salvation. Their all efforts are
O Lord, all the living beings are wandering in your illusion. But the
learned ones don't regard themselves separate from the cycle of life and
death. In your shelter, they have nothing to fear.
Shukdev says: "Parikshit as per your query, I told you how Vedas
describe Parabrahma Paramatma who is free from natural virtues and
invisible. O king, it is the lord who conceptualizes the universe and is
present in the beginning, mid and the end of it. He is the Lord of
nature and creatures. It is He who created the universe and entered it
with the creatures. He created the bodies and controls them. Such as a
human being, who is immersed in deep sleep, is not aware of his body.
Similarly, on receiving God, the creature is freed from illusion. So one
must continuously reflect on the virtues of Lord Shri Krishna."
Parikshit asked: "Gurudev, those among the gods, human beings and the
demons, who worship Lord Lord Shiva, get wealth very soon. But those,
who worship Lord Narayana, remain afflicated with scarcity. What is the
reason for that?"
Shukdev said : "Parikshit, your grandfather Yudhishthir had put the same
question before Lord Krishna."
In reply, Lord Krishna had said: "O Yudhishthir, I take away all the
wealth from those whom I bestow my grace. When they are poor, their
relatives desert them. I even render their efforts useless when they try
to earn money. Thus being unsuccessful repeatedly, the people develop an
attitude of indifference for wealth. Then they begin to take shelter as
my devotee and mingle with me. Only then, I bestow my full grace on them
and they receive me as Sachchidanand Parbrahma. Thus, pleasing me
through my worship is extremely difficult. Hence, ordinary people give
me up and worship other deities, which are in fact different forms of
Lord Shiva is Ashutosh and bestows his devotees quickly with grace. He
gives wealth and other riches to his devotees. But once they get wealth,
the devotees become despotic and even forget the God who had blessed
them." In this context Shukdev narrated one ancient tale to Parikshit.
Once upon a time, there was a demon Vrikasur. He had pleased Lord Shiva
and sought a boon that the person, upon whose head the demon put his
hand, should be incinerated at once. Lord Shiva granted the boon without
considering the consequences. But as soon as the demon got this
supernatural power, he ran to incinerate Lord Shiva first. The demon was
eyeing Gauri Parvati, so he was determined to eliminate Lord Lord Shiva.
Now afraid of his own boon, Lord Shiva ran for his life, with the demon
following him in hot pursuit. At last Lord Shiva reached in Vaikunth and
told Lord Vishnu about his crisis. Lord at once illusioned the demon and
made him put his hand, on his own head. By the virtue of the boon, the
demon was incinerated in no time and thus Lord Shiva could be saved.
Once upon a time, all the sages assembled on the bank of Saraswati
river. A dispute errupted among them as to who among the trinity was the
greatest. By consensus they appointed sage Bhrigu to test the trinity of
Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh. Bhrigu reached to Brahma, but did not greet
him. Brahma got infuriated but since the sage Bhrigu was his own son, He
did not curse him. Then Bhrigu visted Lord Shiva. Lord Shiva proceeded
to embrace the sage. But instead of accepting Lord Shiva's welcome, the
sage began to abuse Him, saying: "You violate the dignity of Vedas, so I
will not meet with you." Angry Lord Shiva raised his trident to kill
him, but Bhagawati stopped Him. At last Bhrigu reached Vaikunth to see
Lord was lying with head in the lap of Lakshmi. Bhrigu kicked hard at
His chest. But instead of getting angry, Lord got up, bowed his head
before the sage and begged pardon: "O Sage, pardon me, I could not
welcome you at once, at your arrival. Your feet are soft, I hope they
are not hurt. All my sins have been washed by the touch of your feet."
Bhrigu felt very pleased by the serious talks of Lord. His heart felt
overwhelmed with excess of devotion. He returned to the assembly of the
sages and narrated his experience. Since then Lord Vishnu is regarded as
the Supreme and giver of peace and fearlessness.
There in Dwaraka lived a Brahmin. When the first son was born to his
wife, it died immediately after birth. The Brahmin took his dead son to
the royal court and complained: "My Son has died because of anti-Brahmin
and licentious actions of the king." One by one, thus, eight sons were
born to the Brahmin couple; but they all died immediately after birth.
And the Brahmin kept on dumping his dead sons at the gate of the royal
When his ninth son was born, and died, Arjun was also there in Dwaraka.
He made a promise to the Brahmins: I shall guard your son or commit self
immolation. At the time of next delivery, the agitated Brahmin came to
Arjun. Training his bow and arrows, Arjun made all arrangements to
protect Brahmin's tenth son. Sanctified by many mantras, Arjun's arrows
constructed a fence around the labour room. A child took birth; but it
too died after some time. Brahmin,then, cursed Arjuna. Arjun scouted
through all the three worlds and even the netherworlds in search of the
Brahmin's dead son, but he could not find him anywhere. Ultimately
accepting his failure and as per his promise, Arjun proceeded to
Meanwhile, Lord Krishna too learned about Arjun's vow and stopped him
from self-immolation. Thereafter, riding a divine chariot, Lord set out
with Arjun, towards west. Beyond the limits of cosmos. They reached the
abode of Lord Vasudev in Tripadvibhuti. There Arjun saw that Lord was
present in Purushottams appearance. Shri Krishna and Arjun greeted Him.
Lord Purushottam said in a serious voice: "O Krishna and Arjuna, only to
have a sight of both of you, I brought the Brahmin's sons to me. Both of
you had taken incarnation on earth from my part to protect the religion.
All the demons have been slain by now. Now you too return to me.
Shri Krishna and Arjun again greeted Lord and returned on earth with all
the sons of the Brahmin.
Arjun was greatly surprised to see the supreme abode of Lord. He felt
that whatever strength a living being had, it was all by Shri Krishna's
grace. Like common, ordinary people, the Lord stayed on earth enjoing
mundane comforts, performed Yagyas like kings, behaved like idealistic
people; deterred His subjects and slayed evil kings to re-establish
religion on earth.
contains 4 sub-sections.
Shukdev said: "O Parikshit, as the time passed, Yaduvanshis grew
stronger and more influencial. Now no longer did they like the welcoming
and treating of the great sages like Kanu, Dhrvasa, Maitreya, Dhannmy
etc. by the Lord. Lord Krishna knew about their disliking, but secretly
He was pleased by this change in Yaduvanshi's behaviour, for He knew
that by disregarding the saints and the scriptures, they would meet
their end sooner.
Once the Yaduvanshis clothed Jambvati's son Samb in a woman's attire
and, showing him to the sages asked mockingly: "Maharaj, this is our
sister-in-law. She is an expecting mother. She feels shy to ask but tell
us what will be born to her?
Through their unfailing vision, the Sages knew the reality and said:
"Fools, a pestle shall be born to her and that pestle shall exterminate
the entire Yaduvansh. Now all the Yaduvanshis were perplexed by sages'
prediction, and approached their king Ugrasen. But, even the king was
helpless now because he could not change the words the pious sages.
In due course , a pestle was born to Samb. Frightened of an imminent
fate, Yaduvanshis crushed the pestle into a fine powder and threw it
into the sea. Only a nail remained, that also was thrown into the sea
where a fish swallowed it. A fisher caught the fish and cut it open and
found the nail. He gave it to a hunter. The hunter fixed the nail in the
head of his arrow. On the other hand, the sea waves washed the powder of
the pestle ashore where it germinated and grew as luxuriant grasses.
Later on, once all the Yaduvanshis assembled at the sea-shore for a
picnic where they drank wine and began to fight with one another under
intoxication. Soon their quarrel grew so high that they pulled out the
grasses, which were growing there, to use as the arms. With the grasses
the Yaduvanshis beat one another to death.
Once Narad arrived in Dwaraka. Vasudev prayed him and requested to
provide him with pious company of Bhagwad dharma. Narad said: "O king,
once upon a time, nine great sages arrived in the court of the king
Janak. King Janak had put the same curiosity before them also. I will
narrate the conversation that followed there between the sages and the
First of all, the first Yogishwar Kavi said: "O king Janak, dedication
is the first duty (dharma) of a Vaishnav. He should devote everything -
his actions, fruits of actions and even himself, at the feet of Lord. He
ought to hear about Lord's virtues. Such a devotee shall be indifferent
to the worldly affairs and shall laugh, dance or sing occasionally and
sanctified all the three worlds."
The king then asked about the characteristics of the Lord's devotees.
Another Yogeshwar Hari said: "A true devotee of the Lord remains
unaffected by feelings like hunger, thirst, life, death, labour, pain,
fear and desire. Such a devotee is the excellent kind of Bhagwad. Even
the wealth of all the three worlds cannot shake the faith of such a
devotee, because Lord Shri Hari himself stays in his heart."
"What is illusion?" A Yogeshwar Antariksh replied: "King, an illusion is
also God's play. Having a possessive feeling about mundane is illusion.
Thinking in terms of 'I', 'Me', 'Mine', 'My', 'You', 'Your' is also
illusion. If one can have such an affection for God as he has for
worldly things, one can easily surmount the illusion."
King Janak then asked about the method of worshipping Lord. A yogeshwar,
Karbhajan said: " O king, the Lord had a fair complexion in Satyuga.
People used to receive Him through methods like meditation,
reconciliation, etc. In Tretayuga, the Lord had reddish complexion and
Yagyas were the main means to achieve Him. In Dwaparyuga, the Lord had
yellowish complexion and He could be pleased through worships. In the
present Kaliyuga, Lord has dark complexion and one can receive Him
through means like recitation, narration and hearing of His name and
Thus, narad preached Vasudev about Bhagwad dharma. Now the heart and
mind of Vasudev were thoroughly clean and pure.
To remind the Lord about the moment of His departure, Brahma arrived in
Dwaraka accompanied by all the gods. He prayed to Him: "O Lord, you have
completed your duty of what we had once requested you. Now, You please
return to your abode. Lord said: "On the seventh day from now, Dwaraka
shall submerge in the sea and Yadavas shall fight among themselves to
death. I too shall depart then. The arrow of a hunter shall be the cause
of my departure."
When Uddhav learned that Lord was about to wind up His plays, he
approached Him and said: "I understand, O Lord, that this all is
happening by your wish. But I cannot part for a moment from your feet.
Hence, take me also with you to your abode." Lord said: "Uddhav, I will
not go anywhere. My entire brilliance will be present in Shrimad
Bhagwad. You stay here preaching Bhagwad dharma." Saying thus, lord
preached Uddhav about the Geeta Gyana through the tale of Avadhoot.
Lord narrated thus: "Uddhav, Once, our ancestor Yadu happened to see
Lord Dattatreya in a forest. Lord was indulged in the supreme joy in the
guise of Avadhoot. Yadu asked him about the reasons for his whimsical
state." Avadhoot had said: "O king, making the various animals, birds,
insects etc as my teacher, I have learned about spirituality from them.
That is why I am free from mourning and attachment. Earth, air, sky,
water, fire, the moon the sun, pigeon, python, sea, grasshopper,
bumblebee, honey bee, elephant, extractor of honey, deer, fish,
prostitute, osprey, boy, girls, arrow-maker, snake, spider and wasp are
all my teachers. I took refuge at these twenty-four teachers and learned
from their behaviour.
I learned forgiveness from earth, purity from the sky, holiness and
cleanliness from the water, innocence and renunciation from the fire;
indifferentness from the air, to remain unaffected by circumstances from
moon, abdication from the Sun, incoherence from the pigeon, dependence
upon fate and remain effortless from the python, to remain always happy
and serious from the sea, to be under the control of sense organs and
hence meet total destruction from the grasshopper, acquiring of virtues
from bumblebee, fault in cumulating from honey bee, to abstain sensuous
talks from the Deer, to eliminate greed from the fish, sorrow in hope
and happiness in desperation from the prostitute, to feel happy in
uncertainty from osprey, dispute among many from the girls,
concentration from the arrow-maker, to roam alone and detachment from a
particular place from the snake, virtues of the creator Lord from the
spider, and I learned similarity from the wasp."
In the guise of Avadhoot, Lord Dattatreya says: "O king, I learned
wisdom and apathy from my body also, because life, death, life and death
again are inseparably intertwined with it. Hence the net result of
loving this body is nothing but sorrow. Thus our own body also helps us
to learn about metaphysical knowledge.
Lord Krishna also explained Uddhav regarding futility of physical and
heavenly luxuries. This human body is like a tree, on which two birds -
Jeevatma and Paramatma (microcosm and supreme soul) - have taken
shelter. Two fruits - happiness and sorrow - appear on it. These fruits
are eaten by Jeevatma (micrososm) while Paramatma (supreme soul) stays
as an indifferent onlooker. There are three kinds of Jeev - Baddh
(Bound), Bhakt (devotee) and Mukt(liberated). Baddh Jeevas (bound souls)
are those who indulge in sensual pleasures and those who dislike pious
company. Mukt Jeev (liberated souls) are those who are free from
attachment and bindings. Bhakt (devotees) are those who meditate on me
and dedicate their everything in my feet and have love for my virtues.
My devotee is kind, free from flaws, tolerant, has feeling of fraternity
for all and controls his desires.
Lord said: "Uddhav, in the world, there is indeed a dearth of such
tolerant people who can tolerate bitter remarks of evil ones. In this
context there is a tale of a greedy Brahmin who lived in Ujjain. That
Brahmin had been badly tormented by the evil people after he had lost
his wealth. But still the Brahmin did not lose his patience and
regarding his present state as a result of his previous birth's deeds,
he expressed his feelings thus:
These people are not the cause of my miseries; neither the gods, nor
body, not even planets and time, can be blamed for my miseries.
Scriptures and learned ones held the mind itself guilty of one's
miseries. It is the mind that runs the cycle of the world and makes
every kind of efforts.
In the absence of mind, even the soul is rendered motionless. When one
accepts the dictates of the mind and indulges in sensual pleasures, soul
too comes to be bound with them. The ultimate outcome of all the
spiritual efforts like celibacy, study of Vedas etc. and abidance to
pious actions is the concentration of mind. Concentration of mind and is
abstaintation from sensual pleasures are the primary conditions for
attainment of Paramyoga (supreme meditation). Thus Lord preached Uddhav
about Gyana Geeta. Uddhav too took Bhagwad (which is a form of the Lord)
with honour and departed for Badrikashrama.
contains 6 sub-sections.
Shukdev describes about the dynasties that would occur in Kaliyug.
Ripunjay or Puranjay would be the last king of Brihdrath dynasty. This
dynasty would be succeeded by the kings of Nand dynasty. Then a
diplomatic Brahmin, named Chanakya, would exterminate this dynasty and
enthrone Chandragupt Maurya. In Maurya dynasty, a great king would occur
by the name of Ashokvardhan. After him, Yavans would rule then for six
hundred and forty years. Their rule would be succeeded by the governance
of the fair-complexioned foreigners, who would rule for one hundred and
sixty years. Thereafter, there would be no king and no subjects because
people from all the classes would come forward to rule.
The ruler would be selected by the majority votes. There would be no any
thing like holyness. Cows would grow thin like nannies. People would not
marry, as per their castes. Greed, selfishness and sex would be the base
of marriage life. In adverse conditions, spouses would desert
each-other. There would be nothing like duty, responsibility and
conduct. Hair would be the main item of adornment for the women.
People would not have the knowledge of religious scriptures in Kaliyug.
Talkativeness would be identified with knowledge. Only those would be
regarded as clever, who could pick others' pockets. Children would not
regard or pay due respect to their parents. Children would maintain
relations with parents till their marriage only, not after that. Boys
would not touch the feet of their own parents, but would pay full
respect to their father and mother-in-law, Brother-in-law would be
dearer to them than their own brother.
Shukdev says: Parikshit, Kaliyug is the mine of faults, But it has only
one great virtue - that the people will acquire divine position only by
reciting Lord's name. Recitation of Lord's name, regardless of intention
and motivation-- whether it is love, derision, laziness or maliceness-
would destroy one's sins.
But O Parikshit, the sinister people would do even the most difficult
tasks in Kaliyug, but they would not recite Lord's name. They would not
have an interest in the Lord. Their interests would be more in sensuous
things like sound, touch, beauty, scent etc.
O Parikshit, the Paramgati (supreme salvation) that people could receive
by ten thousand years of meditation in Satyuga; by performing Yagya for
hundred years in Tretayuga and by worshiping Lord,s idol for ten years
in Dwapar, that supreme salvation is easily available for people in
Kaliyug simply by reciting Lord's name for one day and one night
continuously. But still,in Kaliyug people would not have faith in Lord's
name. It is their misfortune.
Shukdev says: O Parikshit, recitation of Shri Hari has occurred in
Shrimad Bhagwad Mahapuran. O King, this soul is eternal, so you abandon
this animal- like feeling that you would die. You are not the body. You
are the eternal form of joy. Imbibe your mind with the reflections of
Paramatma (supreme spirit) and have a sight of Him in the end. You are
God yourself. Then neither Takshak nor death would do any harm to you.
Unify yourself in the supreme being by thoughts like, 'I am Parabrahma.'
Thus Shukdev assured Parikshit to be fearless.
Thus graced by Shukdev, king Parikshit faithfully worshiped Brahmrishi
and prayed to him with folded hands: "Lord, you are an idol of kindness.
You have bestowed your graced on me narrating the plays of Lord Shri
Hari. Now I am salved and have achieved my natural state. You helped me
receive the supreme position in my life alone. Now I can experience the
soul as separate from my body." Accepting Parikshit's worships, Shukdev
made his departure. Parikshit himself achieved the status of the sage
and concentrated his soul in supreme spirit. Thus, before Takshak could
bite him, he was merged in Brahma. Takshak stung his physical body only,
which was burnt by the effect of the sting.
When Janmejay, the son of Parikshit, learned that a snake had stung his
father, he organised, Sarpsatra. During the Satra, and invoked by the
hymns of Brahmins, snakes drew from far and near and got burnt in the
fire. Frightened Takshak approached Indra for refuge. Indra promised to
help him. There, on earth, Janmejay asked the Brahmins: "Why has Takshak,
the killer of my father, not arrived yet?" Through reconciliation,
Brahmins saw that Takshak was clinging to Indra's throne. The Brahmin
invoked Takshak along with Indra. Indra's throne began to move
earthward. But then Brahaspati, the teacher of the gods, intervened and
stopped the Yagya.
SUTJI described about the Samhitas and divisions of Vedas to the sages
like Shaunak etc. Ved Vyas divided Vedas into four parts and created
four Sanhitas viz, Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva and taught Rigsanhita to
Pail, Nigad sanhita to Vaishampayan, Chhandog Sanhita to Jemini and
tought Atharvangiras Sanhita to Sumantu. All these four sages are the
disciples of Ved Vyas.
SUTJI narrated the tale of Mrikandu's son Markandey. Taking shelter at
Mahakaal (Lord Shiva), Markandey had turned away even Kaal (death). And
by penance had a sight of Lord Shri Narayana. He prayed God to show His
Maya (illusion). Thus Markandey saw the scene of Pralaya. All the
creatures were drowning in the deluge. On a leaf of Banyan, then he saw
Bal Mukund. Markandey entered Lord's heart and saw endless cosmos there.
Then, by God's instinct, Markandey returned to his hermitage. Thus
Markandey had the knowledge of Lord's metaphysical state.
In the last chapters, a brief content of Bhagwad and glory of Lord's
devotion have been discussed. SUTJI says: O great sages, I have
described what you have asked on the occasion of this pious assemblage.
That voice is useless, which cannot recite Lord's name and can not
praise His virtues. All the sins and omens are destroyed by constant
recitation of Lord's name. One then receives devotion for Lord with pure
heart and begins to experience and feel God's tangible form. Though all
the other Purans contain description of Lord's appearance, but in
Shrimad Bhagwad Mahapuran, there is profuse description of Shri Hari in
every chapter. Shrimad Bhagwad has a confluence of knowledge, asceticism
and devotion. One receives devotion for Lord and salvation eventually
merely by reciting, listening and reflecting over it.
NAMA SANKIRTANAM YASYA SARVPAP
PRANAMO DUKHSHAMANAM TAM NAMAMI HARI PARAM ||