301. That which has been created by the
Buddhi extremely deluded by Nescience, and which is perceived in this
body as "I am such and such" – when that egoism is totally destroyed,
one attains an unobstructed identity with Brahman.
302. The treasure of the Bliss of Brahman
is coiled round by the mighty and dreadful serpent of egoism, and
guarded for its own use by means of its three fierce hoods consisting of
the three Gunas. Only the wise man, destroying it by severing its three
hoods with the great sword of realisation in accordance with the
teachings of the Shrutis, can enjoy this treasure which confers bliss.
303. As long as there is a trace of
poisoning left in the body, how can one hope for recovery ? Similar is
the effect of egoism on the Yogi’s Liberation.
304. Through the complete cessation of
egoism, through the stoppage of the diverse mental waves due to it, and
through the discrimination of the inner Reality, one realises that
Reality as "I am This".
305. Give up immediately thy
identification with egoism, the agent, which is by its nature a
modification, is endued with a reflection of the Self, and diverts one
from being established in the Self – identifying thyself with which thou
hast come by this relative existence, full of the miseries of birth,
decay and death, though thou art the Witness, the Essence of Knowledge
and Bliss Absolute.
306. But for thy identification with
that egoism there can never be any transmigration for thee who art
immutable and eternally the same, the Knowledge Absolute, omnipresent,
the Bliss Absolute, and of untarnished glory.
307. Therefore destroying this egoism,
thy enemy - which appears like a thorn sticking in the throat of a man
taking meal – with the great sword of realisation, enjoy directly and
freely the bliss of thy own empire, the majesty of the Atman.
308. Checking the activities of egoism
etc., and giving up all attachment through the realisation of the
Supreme Reality, be free from all duality through the enjoyment of the
Bliss of Self, and remain quiet in Brahman, for thou hast attained thy
309. Even though completely rooted out,
this terrible egoism, if revolved in the mind even for a moment, returns
to life and creates hundreds of mischiefs, like a cloud ushered in by
the wind during the rainy season.
310. Overpowering this enemy, egoism,
not a moment’s respite should be given to it by thinking on the
sense-objects. That is verily the cause of its coming back to life, like
water to a citron tree that has almost dried up.
311. He alone who has identified
himself with the body is greedy after sense-pleasures. How can one,
devoid of the body-idea, be greedy (like him) ? Hence the tendency to
think on the sense-objects is verily the cause of the bondage of
transmigration, giving rise to an idea of distinction or duality.
312. When the effects are developed,
the seed also is observed to be such, and when the effects are
destroyed, the seed also is seen to be destroyed. Therefore one must
subdue the effects.
313. Through the increase of desires
selfish work increases, and when there is an increase of selfish work,
there is an increase of desire also. And man’s transmigration is never
at an end.
314. For the sake of breaking the chain
of transmigration, the Sannyasin should burn to ashes those two; for
thinking of the sense-objects and doing selfish acts lead to an increase
315-316. Augmented by these two,
desires produce one’s transmigration. The way to destroy these three,
however, lies in looking upon everything, under all circumstances,
always, everywhere and in all respects, as Brahman and Brahman alone.
Through the strengthening of the longing to be one with Brahman, those
three are annihilated.
317. With the cessation of selfish
action the brooding on the sense-objects is stopped, which is followed
by the destruction of desires. The destruction of desires is Liberation,
and this is considered as Liberation-in-life
318. When the desire for realising
Brahman has a marked manifestation, the egoistic desires readily vanish,
as the most intense darkness effectively vanishes before the glow of the
319. Darkness and the numerous evils
that attend on it are not noticed when the sun rises. Similarly, on the
realisation of the Bliss Absolute, there is neither bondage nor the
least trace of misery.
320. Causing the external and internal
universe, which are now perceived, to vanish, and meditating on the
Reality, the Bliss Embodied, one should pass one’s time watchfully, if
there be any residue of Prarabdha work left.
321. One should never be careless in
one’s steadfastness to Brahman. Bhagavan Sanatkumara, who is Brahma’s
son, has called inadvertence to be death itself.
322. There is no greater danger for the
Jnanin than carelessness about his own real nature. From this comes
delusion, thence egoism, this is followed by bondage, and then comes
323. Finding even a wise man hankering
after the sense-objects, oblivion torments him through the evil
propensities of the Buddhi, as a woman does her doting paramour.
324. As sedge, even if removed, does
not stay away for a moment, but covers the water again, so Maya or
Nescience also covers even a wise man, if he is averse to meditation on
325. If the mind ever so slightly
strays from the Ideal and becomes outgoing, then it goes down and down,
just as a play-ball inadvertently dropped on the staircase bounds down
from one step to another.
326. The mind that is attached to the
sense-objects reflects on their qualities; from mature reflection arises
desire, and after desiring a man sets about having that thing.
327. Hence to the discriminating knower
of Brahman there is no worse death than inadvertence with regard to
concentration. But the man who is concentrated attains complete success.
(Therefore) carefully concentrate thy mind (on Brahman).
328. Through inadvertence a man
deviates from his real nature, and the man who has thus deviated falls.
The fallen man comes to ruin, and is scarcely seen to rise again.
329. Therefore one should give up
reflecting on the sense-objects, which is the root of all mischief. He
who is completely aloof even while living, is alone aloof after the
dissolution of the body. The Yajur-Veda declares that there is fear for
one who sees the least bit of distinction.
330. Whenever the wise man sees the
least difference in the infinite Brahman, at once that which he sees as
different through mistake, becomes a source of terror to him.
331. He who identifies himself with the
objective universe which has been denied by hundreds of Shrutis, Smritis
and reasonings, experiences misery after misery, like a thief, for he
does something forbidden.
332. He who has devoted himself to
meditation on the Reality (Brahman) and is free from Nescience, attains
to the eternal glory of the Atman. But he who dwells on the unreal (the
universe) is destroyed. That this is so is evidenced in the case of one
who is not a thief and one who is a thief.
333. The Sannyasin should give up
dwelling on the unreal, which causes bondage, and should always fix his
thoughts on the Atman as "I myself am This". For the steadfastness in
Brahman through the realisation of one’s identity with It gives rise to
bliss and thoroughly removes the misery born of nescience, which one
experiences (in the ignorant state).
334. The dwelling on external objects
will only intensify its fruits, viz. furthering evil propensities, which
grow worse and worse. Knowing this through discrimination, one should
avoid external objects and constantly apply oneself to meditation on the
335. When the external world is shut
out, the mind is cheerful, and cheerfulness of the mind brings on the
vision of the Paramatman. When It is perfectly realised, the chain of
birth and death is broken. Hence the shutting out of the external world
is the stepping-stone to Liberation.
336. Where is the man who being
learned, able to discriminate the real from the unreal, believing the
Vedas as authority, fixing his gaze on the Atman, the Supreme Reality,
and being a seeker after Liberation, will, like a child, consciously
have recourse to the unreal (the universe) which will cause his fall ?
337. There is no Liberation for one who
has attachment to the body etc., and the liberated man has no
identification with the body etc. The sleeping man is not awake, nor is
the waking man asleep, for these two states are contradictory in nature.
338. He is free who, knowing through
his mind the Self in moving and unmoving objects and observing It as
their substratum, gives up all superimpositions and remains as the
Absolute and the infinite Self.
339. To realise the whole universe as
the Self is the means of getting rid of bondage. There is nothing higher
than identifying the universe with the Self. One realises this state by
excluding the objective world through steadfastness in the eternal
340. How is the exclusion of the
objective world possible for one who lives identified with the body,
whose mind is attached to the perception of external objects, and who
performs various acts for that end ? This exclusion should be carefully
practised by sages who have renounced all kinds of duties and actions
and objects, who are passionately devoted to the eternal Atman, and who
wish to possess an undying bliss.
341. To the Sannyasin who has gone
through the act of hearing, the Shruti passage, "Calm, self-controlled."
Etc., prescribes Samadhi for realising the identity of the universe with
342. Even wise men cannot suddenly
destroy egoism after it has once become strong, barring those who are
perfectly calm through the Nirvikalpa Samadhi. Desires are verily the
effect of innumerable births.
343. The projecting power, through the
aid of the veiling power, connects a man with the siren of an egoistic
idea, and distracts him through the attributes of that.
344. It is extremely difficult to
conquer the projecting power unless the veiling power is perfectly
rooted out. And that covering over the Atman naturally vanishes when the
subject is perfectly distinguished from the objects, like milk from
water. But the victory is undoubtedly (complete and) free from obstacles
when there is no oscillation of the mind due to the unreal
345. Perfect discrimination brought on
by direct realisation distinguishes the true nature of the subject from
that of the object, and breaks the bond of delusion created by Maya; and
there is no more transmigration for one who has been freed from this.
346. The knowledge of the identity of
the Jiva and Brahman entirely consumes the impenetrable forest of Avidya
or Nescience. For one who has realised the state of Oneness, is there
any seed left for future transmigration ?
347. The veil that hides Truth vanishes
only when the Reality is fully realised. (Thence follow) the destruction
of false knowledge and the cessation of misery brought about by its
348. These three are observed in the
case of a rope when its real nature is fully known. Therefore the wise
man should know the real nature of things for the breaking of his bonds.
349-350. Like iron manifesting as
sparks through contact with fire, the Buddhi manifests itself as knower
and known through the inherence of Brahman. As these two (knower and
known), the effects of the Buddhi, are observed to be unreal in the case
of delusion, dream and fancy, similarly, the modifications of the
Prakriti, from egoism down to the body and all sense-objects are also
unreal. Their unreality is verily due to their being subject to change
every moment. But the Atman never changes.
351. The Supreme Self is ever of the
nature of eternal, indivisible knowledge, one without a second, the
Witness of the Buddhi and the rest, distinct from the gross and subtle,
the implied meaning of the term and idea "I", the embodiment of inward,
352. The wise man, discriminating thus
the real and the unreal, ascertaining the Truth through his illuminative
insight, and realising his own Self which is Knowledge Absolute, gets
rid of the obstructions and directly attains Peace.
353. When the Atman, the One without a
second, is realised by means of the Nirvikalpa Samadhi, then the heart’s
knot of ignorance is totally destroyed.
354. Such imaginations as "thou", "I"
or "this" take place through the defects of the Buddhi. But when the
Paramatman, the Absolute, the One without a second, manifests Itself in
Samadhi, all such imaginations are dissolved for the aspirant, through
the realisation of the truth of Brahman.
355. The Sannyasin, calm,
self-controlled, perfectly retiring from the sense-world, forbearing,
and devoting himself to the practice of Samadhi, always reflects on his
own self being the Self of the whole universe. Destroying completely by
this means the imaginations which are due to the gloom of ignorance, he
lives blissfully as Brahman, free from action and the oscillations of
356. Those alone are free from the
bondage of transmigration who, attaining Samadhi, have merged the
objective world, the sense-organs, the mind, nay, the very ego, in the
Atman, the Knowledge Absolute – and none else, who but dabble in
357. Through the diversity of the
supervening conditions (Upadhis), a man is apt to think of himself as
also full of diversity; but with the removal of these he is again his
own Self, the immutable. Therefore the wise man should ever devote
himself to the practice of Nirvikalpa Samadhi, for the dissolution of
358. The man who is attached to the
Real becomes Real, through his one-pointed devotion. Just as the
cockroach thinking intently on the Bhramara is transformed into a
359. Just as the cockroach, giving up
the attachment to all other actions, thinks intently on the Bhramara and
becomes transformed into that worm, exactly in the same manner the Yogi,
meditating on the truth of the Paramatman, attains to It through his
one-pointed devotion to that.
360. The truth of the Paramatman is
extremely subtle, and cannot be reached by the gross outgoing tendency
of the mind. It is only accessible to noble souls with perfectly pure
minds, by means of Samadhi brought on by an extraordinary fineness of
the mental state.
361. As gold purified by thorough
heating on the fire gives up its impurities and attains to its own
lustre, so the mind, through meditation, gives up its impurities of
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, and attains to the reality of Brahman.
362. When the mind, thus purified by
constant practice, is merged in Brahman, then Samadhi passes on from the
Savikalpa to the Nirvikalpa stage, and leads directly to the realisation
of the Bliss of Brahman, the One without a second.
363. By this Samadhi are destroyed all
desires which are like knots, all work is at an end, and inside and out
there takes place everywhere and always the spontaneous manifestation of
one’s real nature.
364. Reflection should be considered a
hundred times superior to hearing, and meditation a hundred thousand
times superior even to reflection, but the Nirvikalpa Samadhi is
infinite in its results.
365. By the Nirvikalpa Samadhi the
truth of Brahman is clearly and definitely realised, but not otherwise,
for then the mind, being unstable by nature, is apt to be mixed up with
366. Hence with the mind calm and the
senses controlled always drown the mind in the Supreme Self that is
within, and through the realisation of thy identity with that Reality
destroy the darkness created by Nescience, which is without beginning.
367. The first steps to Yoga are
control of speech, non-receiving of gifts, entertaining of no
expectations, freedom from activity, and always living in a retired
368. Living in a retired place serves
to control the sense-organs, control of the senses helps to control the
mind, through control of the mind egoism is destroyed; and this again
gives the Yogi an unbroken realisation of the Bliss of Brahman.
Therefore the man of reflection should always strive only to control the
369. Restrain speech in the Manas, and
restrain Manas in the Buddhi; this again restrain in the witness of
Buddhi, and merging that also in the Infinite Absolute Self, attain to
370. The body, Pranas, organs, manas,
Buddhi and the rest – with whichsoever of these supervening adjuncts the
mind is associated, the Yogi is transformed, as it were, into that.
371. When this is stopped, the man of
reflection is found to be easily detached from everything, and to get
the experience of an abundance of everlasting Bliss.
372. It is the man of dispassion
(Vairagya) who is fit for this internal as well as external
renunciation; for the dispassionate man, out of the desire to be free,
relinquishes both internal and external attachment.
373. It is only the dispassionate man
who, being thoroughly grounded in Brahman, can give up the external
attachment to the sense-objects and the internal attachment for egoism
374. Know, O wise man, dispassion and
discrimination to be like the two wings of a bird in the case of an
aspirant. Unless both are there, none can, with the help of either one,
reach the creeper of Liberation that grows, as it were, on the top of an
375. The extremely dispassionate man
alone has Samadhi, and the man of Samadhi alone gets steady realisation;
the man who has realised the Truth is alone free from bondage, and the
free soul only experiences eternal Bliss.
376. For the man of self-control I do
not find any better instrument of happiness than dispassion, and if that
is coupled with a highly pure realisation of the Self, it conduces to
the suzerainty of absolute Independence; and since this is the gateway
to the damsel of everlasting liberation, therefore for thy welfare, be
dispassionate both internally and externally, and always fix thy mind on
the eternal Self.
377. Sever thy craving for the
sense-objects, which are like poison, for it is the very image of death,
and giving up thy pride of caste, family and order of life, fling
actions to a distance. Give up thy identification with such unreal
things as the body, and fix thy mind on the Atman. For thou art really
the Witness, Brahman, unshackled by the mind, the One without a second,
378. Fixing the mind firmly on the
Ideal, Brahman, and restraining the external organs in their respective
centres; with the body held steady and taking no thought for its
maintenance; attaining identity with Brahman and being one with It –
always drink joyfully of the Bliss of Brahman in thy own Self, without a
break. What is the use of other things which are entirely hollow ?
379. Giving up the thought of the
non-Self which is evil and productive of misery, think of the Self, the
Bliss Absolute, which conduces to Liberation.
380. Here shines eternally the Atman,
the Self-effulgent Witness of everything, which has the Buddhi for Its
seat. Making this Atman which is distinct from the unreal, the goal,
meditate on It as thy own Self, excluding all other thought.
381. Reflecting on this Atman
continuously and without any foreign thought intervening, one must
distinctly realise It to be one’s real Self.
382. Strengthening one’s identification
with This, and giving up that with egoism and the rest, one must live
without any concern for them, as if they were trifling things, like a
cracked jar or the like.
383. Fixing the purified mind in the
Self, the Witness, the Knowledge Absolute, and slowly making it still,
one must then realise one’s own infinite Self.
384. One should behold the Atman, the
Indivisible and Infinite, free from all limiting adjuncts such as the
body, organs, Pranas, Manas and egoism, which are creations of one’s own
ignorance – like the infinite sky.
385. The sky, divested of the hundreds
of limiting adjuncts such as a jar, a pitcher, a receptacle for grains
or a needle, is one, and not diverse; exactly in a similar way the pure
Brahman, when divested of egoism etc., is verily One.
386. The limiting adjuncts from Brahma
down to a clump of grass are all wholly unreal. Therefore one should
realise one’s own Infinite Self as the only Principle.
387. That in which something is
imagined to exist through error, is, when rightly discriminated, that
thing itself, and not distinct from it. When the error is gone, the
reality about the snake falsely perceived becomes the rope. Similarly
the universe is in reality the Atman.
388. The Self is Brahma, the Self is
Vishnu, the Self is Indra, the Self is Shiva; the Self is all this
universe. Nothing exists except the Self.
389. The Self is within, and the Self
is without; the Self is before and the Self is behind; the Self is in
the south, and the Self is in the north; the Self likewise is above as
390. As the wave, the foam, the
whirlpool, the bubble, etc., are all in essence but water, similarly the
Chit (Knowledge Absolute) is all this, from the body up to egoism.
Everything is verily the Chit, homogeneous and pure.
391. All this universe known through
speech and mind is nothing but Brahman; there is nothing besides
Brahman, which exists beyond the utmost range of the Prakriti. Are the
pitcher, jug, jar, etc., known to be distinct from the clay of which
they are composed ? It is the deluded man who talks of "thou" and "I",
as an effect of the wine of Maya.
392. The Shruti, in the passage, "Where
one sees nothing else", etc., declares by an accumulation of verbs the
absence of duality, in order to remove the false superimpositions.
393. The Supreme Brahman is, like the
sky, pure, absolute, infinite, motionless and changeless, devoid of
interior or exterior, the One Existence, without a second, and is one’s
own Self. Is there any other object of knowledge ?
394. What is the use of dilating on
this subject ? The Jiva is no other than Brahman; this whole extended
universe is Brahman Itself; the Shruti inculcates the Brahman without a
second; and it is an indubitable fact that people of enlightened minds
who know their identity with Brahman and have given up their connection
with the objective world, live palpably unifold with Brahman as Eternal
Knowledge and Bliss.
395. (First) destroy the hopes raised
by egoism in this filthy gross body, then do the same forcibly with the
air-like subtle body; and realising Brahman, the embodiment of eternal
Bliss – whose glories the Scriptures proclaim – as thy own Self, live as
396. So long as man has any regard for
this corpse-like body, he is impure, and suffers from his enemies as
also from birth, death and disease; but when he thinks of himself as
pure, as the essence of good and immovable, he assuredly becomes free
from them; the Shrutis also say this.
397. By the elimination of all apparent
existences superimposed on the soul, the supreme Brahman, Infinite, the
One without a second and beyond action, remains as Itself.
398. When the mind-functions are merged
in the Paramatman, the Brahman, the Absolute, none of this phenomenal
world is seen, whence it is reduced to mere talk.
399. In the One Entity (Brahman) the
conception of the universe is a mere phantom. Whence can there be any
diversity in That which is changeless, formless and Absolute ?
400. In the One Entity devoid of the
concepts of seer, seeing and seen – which is changeless, formless and
Absolute – whence can there be any diversity ?