501. It is the Upadhi (superimposed
attribute) that comes, and it is that alone which goes; that, again,
performs actions and experiences (their fruits), that alone decays and
dies, whereas I ever remain firm like the Kula mountain.
501. For me who am always the same and
devoid of parts, there is neither engaging in work nor cessation from
it. How can that which is One, concentrated, without break and infinite
like the sky, ever strive ?
502. How can there be merits and
demerits for me, who am without organs, without mind, changeless, and
formless – who am the realisation of Bliss Absolute ? The Shruti also
mentions this in the passage "Not touched", etc.
503. If heat or cold, or good or evil,
happens to touch the shadow of a man’s body, it affects not in the least
the man himself, who is distinct from the shadow.
504. The properties of things observed
do not affect the Witness, which is distinct from the, changeless and
indifferent – as the properties of a room (do not affect) the lamp (that
505. As the sun is a mere witness of
men’s actions, as fire burns everything without distinction, and as the
rope is related to a thing superimposed on it, so am I, the unchangeable
Self, the Intelligence Absolute.
506. I neither do nor make others do
any action; I neither enjoy nor make others enjoy; I neither see nor
make others see; I am that Self-effulgent, Transcendent Atman.
507. When the supervening adjunct
(Upadhi) is moving, the resulting movement of the reflection is ascribed
by fools to the object reflected, such as the sun, which is free from
activity – (and they think) "I am the doer", "I am the experiencer", "I
am killed, oh, alas!"
508. Let this inert body drop down in
water or on land. I am not touched by its properties, like the sky by
the properties of the jar.
509. The passing states of the Buddhi,
such as agency, experience, cunning, drunkenness, dullness, bondage and
freedom, are never in reality in the Self, the Supreme Brahman, the
Absolute, the one without a second.
510. Let there be changes in the
Prakriti in ten, a hundred, or a thousand ways, what have I, the
unattached Knowledge Absolute, got to do with them ? Never do the clouds
touch the sky !
511. I am verily that Brahman, the One
without a second, which is like the sky, subtle, without beginning or
end, in which the whole universe from the Undifferentiated down to the
gross body, appears merely as a shadow.
512. I am verily that Brahman, the One
without a second, which is the support of all, which illumines all
things, which has infinite forms, is omnipresent, devoid of
multiplicity, eternal, pure, unmoved and absolute.
513. I am verily that Brahman, the One
without a second, which transcends the endless differentiations of Maya,
which is the inmost essence of all, is beyond the range of
consciousness, and which is Truth, Knowledge, Infinity and Bliss
514. I am without activity, changeless,
without parts, formless, absolute, eternal, without any other support,
the One without a second.
515. I am the Universal, I am the All,
I am transcendent, the One without a second. I am Absolute and Infinite
Knowledge, I am Bliss and indivisible.
516. This splendour of the sovereignty
of Self-effulgence I have received by virtue of the supreme majesty of
thy grace. Salutations to thee, O glorious, noble-minded Teacher,
salutations again and again !
517. O Master, thou hast out of sheer
grace awakened me from sleep and completely saved me, who was wandering,
in an interminable dream, in a forest of birth, decay and death created
by illusion, being tormented day after day by countless afflictions, and
sorely troubled by the tiger of egoism.
518. Salutations to thee, O Prince of
Teachers, thou unnamable Greatness, that art ever the same and dost
manifest thyself as this universe – thee I salute.
519. Seeing the worthy disciple, who
had attained the Bliss of the self, realised the Truth and was glad at
heart, thus prostrating himself, that noble, ideal Teacher again
addressed the following excellent words:
520. The universe is an unbroken series
of perceptions of Brahman; hence it is in all respects nothing but
Brahman. See this with the eye of illumination and a serene mind, under
all circumstances. Is one who has eyes ever found to see all around
anything else but forms? Similarly, what is there except Brahman to
engage the intellect of a man of realisation ?
521. What wise man would discard that
enjoyment of Supreme Bliss and revel in things unsubstantial ? When the
exceedingly charming moon is shining, who would wish to look at a
painted moon ?
522. From the perception of unreal
things there is neither satisfaction nor a cessation of misery.
Therefore, being satisfied with the realisation of the Bliss Absolute,
the One without a second, live happily in a state of identity with that
523. Beholding the Self alone in all
circumstances, thinking of the Self, the One without a second, and
enjoying the Bliss of the Self, pass thy time, O noble soul !
524. Dualistic conceptions in the
Atman, the Infinite Knowledge, the Absolute, are like imagining castles
in the air. Therefore, always identifying thyself with the Bliss
Absolute, the One without a second, and thereby attaining Supreme Peace,
525. To the sage who has realised
Brahman, the mind, which is the cause of unreal fancies, becomes
perfectly tranquil. This verily is his state of quietude, in which,
identified with Brahman, he has constant enjoyment of the Bliss
Absolute, the One without a second.
526. To the man who has realised his
own nature, and drinks the undiluted Bliss of the Self, there is nothing
more exhilarating than the quietude that comes of a state of
527. The illumined sage, whose only
pleasure is in the Self, ever lives at ease, whether going or staying,
sitting or lying, or in any other condition.
528. The noble soul who has perfectly
realised the Truth, and whose mind-functions meet with no obstruction,
no more depends upon conditions of place, time, posture, direction,
moral disciplines, objects of meditation and so forth. What regulative
conditions can there be in knowing one’s own Self ?
529. To know that this is a jar, what
condition, forsooth, is necessary except that the means of knowledge be
free from defect, which alone ensures a cognition of the object ?
530. So this Atman, which is an eternal
verity, manifests Itself as soon as the right means of knowledge is
present, and does not depend upon either place or time or (internal)
531. The consciousness, "I am
Devadatta", is independent of circumstances; similar is the case with
the realisation of the knower of Brahman that he is Brahman.
532. What indeed can manifest That
whose lustre, like the sun, causes the whole universe – unsubstantial,
unreal, insignificant – to appear at all ?
533. What, indeed, can illumine that
Eternal Subject by which the Vedas and Puranas and other Scriptures, as
well as all beings are endowed with a meaning ?
534. Here is the Self-effulgent Atman,
of infinite power, beyond the range of conditioned knowledge, yet the
common experience of all - realising which alone this incomparable
knower of Brahman lives his glorious life, freed from bondage.
535. Satisfied with undiluted, constant
Bliss, he is neither grieved nor elated by sense-objects, is neither
attached nor averse to them, but always disports with the Self and takes
536. A child plays with its toys
forgetting hunger and bodily pains; exactly so does the man of
realisation take pleasure in the Reality, without ideas of "I" or
"mine", and is happy.
537. Men of realisation have their food
without anxiety or humiliation by begging, and their drink from the
water of rivers; they live freely and independently, and sleep without
fear in cremation grounds or forests; their clothing may be the quarters
themselves, which need no washing and drying, or any bark etc., the
earth is their bed; they roam in the avenue of the Vedanta; while their
pastime is in the Supreme Brahman.
538. The knower of the Atman, who wears
no outward mark and is unattached to external things, rests on this body
without identification, and experiences all sorts of sense-objects as
they come, through others’ wish, like a child.
539. Established in the ethereal plane
of Absolute Knowledge, he wanders in the world, sometimes like a madman,
sometimes like a child and at other times like a ghoul, having no other
clothes on his person except the quarters, or sometimes wearing clothes,
or perhaps skins at other times.
540. The sage, living alone, enjoys the
sense-objects, being the very embodiment of desirelessness – always
satisfied with his own Self, and himself present at the All.
541. Sometimes a fool, sometimes a
sage, sometimes possessed of regal splendour; sometimes wandering,
sometimes behaving like a motionless python, sometimes wearing a
benignant expression; sometimes honoured, sometimes insulted, sometimes
unknown – thus lives the man of realisation, ever happy with Supreme
542. Though without riches, yet ever
content; though helpless, yet very powerful, though not enjoying the
sense-objects, yet eternally satisfied; though without an exemplar, yet
looking upon all with an eye of equality.
543. Though doing, yet inactive; though
experiencing fruits of past actions, yet untouched by them; though
possessed of a body, yet without identification with it; though limited,
yet omnipresent is he.
544. Neither pleasure nor pain, nor
good nor evil, ever touches this knower of Brahman, who always lives
without the body-idea.
545. Pleasure or pain, or good or evil,
affects only him who has connections with the gross body etc., and
identifies himself with these. How can good or evil, or their effects,
touch the sage who has identified himself with the Reality and thereby
shattered his bondage ?
546. The sun which appears to be, but
is not actually, swallowed by Rahu, is said to be swallowed, on account
of delusion, by people, not knowing the real nature of the sun.
547. Similarly, ignorant people look
upon the perfect knower of Brahman, who is wholly rid of bondages of the
body etc., as possessed of the body, seeing but an appearance of it.
548. In reality, however, he rests
discarding the body, like the snake its slough; and the body is moved
hither and thither by the force of the Prana, just as it listeth.
549. As a piece of wood is borne by the
current to a high or low ground, so is his body carried on by the
momentum of past actions to the varied experience of their fruits, as
these present themselves in due course.
550. The man of realisation, bereft of
the body-idea, moves amid sense-enjoyments like a man subject to
transmigration, through desires engendered by the Prarabdha work. He
himself, however, lives unmoved in the body, like a witness, free from
mental oscillations, like the pivot of the potter’s wheel.
551. He neither directs the
sense-organs to their objects nor detaches them from these, but stays
like an unconcerned spectator. And he has not the least regard for the
fruits of actions, his mind being thoroughly inebriated with drinking
the undiluted elixir of the Bliss of the Atman.
552. He who, giving up all
considerations of the fitness or otherwise of objects of meditation,
lives as the Absolute Atman, is verily Shiva Himself, and he is the best
among the knowers of Brahman.
553. Through the destruction of
limitations, the perfect knower of Brahman is merged in the One Brahman
without a second – which he had been all along – becomes very free even
while living, and attains the goal of his life.
554. As an actor, when he puts on the
dress of his role, or when he does not, is always a man, so the perfect
knower of Brahman is always Brahman and nothing else.
556. Let the body of the Sannyasin who
has realised his identity with Brahman, wither and fall anywhere like
the leaf of a tree, (it is of little consequence to him, for) it has
already been burnt by the fire of knowledge.
557. The sage who always lives in the
Reality – Brahman – as Infinite Bliss, the One without a second, does
not depend upon the customary considerations of place, time, etc., for
giving up this mass of skin, flesh and filth.
558. For the giving up of the body is
not Liberation, nor that of the staff and the water-bowl; but Liberation
consists in the destruction of the heart’s knot which is Nescience.
559. If a leaf falls in a small stream,
or a river, or a place consecrated by Shiva, or in a crossing of roads,
of what good or evil effect is that to the tree ?
560. The destruction of the body,
organs, Pranas and Buddhi is like that of a leaf or flower or fruit (to
a tree). It does not affect the Atman, the Reality, the Embodiment of
Bliss – which is one’s true nature. That survives, like the tree.
561. The Shrutis, by setting forth the
real nature of the Atman in the words, "The Embodiment of Knowledge"
etc., which indicate Its Reality, speak of the destruction of the
apparent limitations merely.
562. The Shruti passage, "Verily is
this Atman immortal, my dear", mentions the immortality of the Atman in
the midst of things perishable and subject to modification.
563. Just as a stone, a tree, grass,
paddy, husk, etc., when burnt, are reduced to earth (ashes) only, even
so the whole objective universe comprising the body, organs, Pranas,
Manas and so forth, are, when burnt by the fire of realisation, reduced
to the Supreme Self.
564. As darkness, which is distinct
(from sunshine), vanishes in the sun’s radiance, so the whole objective
universe dissolves in Brahman.
565. As, when a jar is broken, the
space enclosed by it becomes palpably the limitless space, so when the
apparent limitations are destroyed, the knower of Brahman verily becomes
566. As milk poured into milk, oil into
oil, and water into water, becomes united and one with it, so the sage
who has realised the Atman becomes one in the Atman.
567. Realising thus the extreme
isolation that comes of disembodiedness, and becoming eternally
identified with the Absolute Reality, Brahman, the sage no longer
568. For his bodies, consisting of
Nescience etc., having been burnt by the realisation of the identity of
the Jiva and Brahman, he becomes Brahman Itself; and how can Brahman
ever have rebirth ?
569. Bondage and Liberation, which are
conjured up by Maya, do not really exist in the Atman, one’s Reality, as
the appearance and exit of the snake do not abide in the rope, which
suffers no change.
570. Bondage and Liberation may be
talked of when there is the presence or absence of a covering veil. But
there can be no covering veil for Brahman, which is always uncovered for
want of a second thing besides Itself. If there be, the non-duality of
Brahman will be contradicted, and the Shrutis can never brook duality.
571. Bondage and Liberation are
attributes of the Buddhi which ignorant people falsely superimpose on
the Reality, as the covering of the eyes by a cloud is transferred to
the sun. For this Immutable Brahman is Knowledge Absolute, the One
without a second and unattached.
572. The idea that bondage exists, and
the idea that it does not, are, with reference to the Reality, both
attributes of the Buddhi merely, and never belong to the Eternal
573. Hence this bondage and Liberation
are created by Maya, and are not in the Atman. How can there be any idea
of limitation with regard to the Supreme Truth, which is without parts,
without activity, calm, unimpeachable, taintless, and One without a
second, as there can be none with regard to the infinite sky ?
574. There is neither death nor birth,
neither a bound nor a struggling soul, neither a seeker after Liberation
nor a liberated one – this is the ultimate truth.
575. I have today repeatedly revealed
to thee, as to one’s own son, this excellent and profound secret, which
is the inmost purport of all Vedanta, the crest of the Vedas –
considering thee an aspirant after Liberation, purged of the taints of
this Dark Age, and of a mind free from desires.
576. Hearing these words of the Guru,
the disciple out of reverence prostrated himself before him, and with
his permission went his way, freed from bondage.
577. And the Guru, with his mind
steeped in the ocean of Existence and Bliss Absolute, roamed, verily
purifying the whole world – all differentiating ideas banished from his
578. Thus by way of a dialogue between
the Teacher and the disciple, has the nature of the Atman been
ascertained for the easy comprehension of seekers after Liberation.
579. May those Sannyasins who are
seekers after Liberation, who have purged themselves of all taints of
the mind by the observance of the prescribed methods, who are averse to
worldly pleasures, and who are of serene minds, and take a delight in
the Shruti – appreciate this salutary teaching !
580. For those who are afflicted, in
the way of the world, by the burning pain due to the (scorching)
sunshine of threefold misery, and who through delusion wander about in a
desert in search of water – for them here is the triumphant message of
Shankara pointing out, within easy reach, the soothing ocean of nectar,
Brahman, the One without a second – to lead them on to Liberation.